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Lecture 3

BIOL 2400 Lecture 3: History Class Notes
BIOL 2400 Lecture 3: History Class Notes

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University of Guelph
BIOL 2400
Teresa Crease

BIOL*2400 Dr. Crease Winter 2017 History Lecture 3 History of Evolutionary Thought Aristotle to Darwin (~350 BC to 1800s) Special Creation o Each organism originated independently o Since time of creation, each organism has remained the same o All organisms were created recently Fixity of Species o Carolus Linnaeus (17011778) established Systema Naturae (1735) to classify living things Considered Father of Taxonomy Emphasized constancy and discreteness of species once a species was present, it remained the same Hierarchical classification system still used today Darwin to Present Evolution o All organisms originated from common ancestors o Organisms have and continue to change over time o Evolution of organisms began 3.7 billion years ago James Hutton (17261797) argues observations of geology should be explicable by processes we can observe in present time, and develops concept of Uniformitarianism o Supported by other geologists of the time: John Playfair (17481819) Charles Lyell (17971875) William Whewell (1794 1866) introduced term GeorgesLouis Leclerc (17071788) o Questioned idea of special creation o Wrote about similarity of man and apes (1749) o Questioned idea of a young earth Georges Cuvier (17691832) o Founded vertebrate paleontology and developed comparative method of organismal biology o Established extinction as fact Geoffroy St. Hilaire (17721844) o Developed rules for deciding when structures in 2 different organisms are variants of same type (homology vs. analogy) Richard Owen (18041892) o Developed homology in 1843 as same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function Homology and Analogy
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