BIOL 3010 Lecture Notes - Autocrine Signalling, Fibrillin, Interatrial Septum

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29 Jan 2013
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Heart
4 STAGES OF HEART DEVELOPMENT
Cardiac Crescent
Heart Tube Formation
Looping of Heart Tube
Septation into 4 chambers
CARDIAC CRESCENT / HEART TUBE
splanchnic mesoderm (anterior, ventral lateral plate) diff. into:
- myocardial precursors
- endocardial precursors endocardial endothelium pair
of heart tubes
tubes coalesce into 1 during lateral-to-ventral folding
myocardium lines outside of heart tube cardiac myocytes
endocardium and myocardium separated by CARDIAC JELLY
CARDIAC INDUCTION – (muscle)
myocardial precursors acquire cardiac fate in cardiac crescent
(examined by watching for heartbeat in cell culture, Nkx2.5)
fate acquired AT cardiac crescent:
- inductive BMP-2 signal from anterior ENDODERM
(lateral anterior endoderm can induce cardiogenesis in
grafted posterior mesoderm)
- however, BMP-2 can only induce heart formation in
anterior regions must be a SECOND SIGNAL that is
expressed anteriorly
Nkx 2.5 – not essential, but earliest marker of cardiac fate
ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR PATTERNING
tube is divided into A/P segments by constrictions
blood flow is anteriograde (posterior anterior)
spatially-restricted expression of chamber-specific myosin
retinoic acid can alter boundary role for HOX genes?
LOOPING AND L/R ASYMMETRY
splanchnic mesoderm
endocardial
endothelium
cardiac myocytes
cardiac jelly
Nkx2.5
BMP-2
2-signal model
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