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Lecture 28 & 29

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University of Guelph
BIOL 4150
Andrew Mac Dougall

Population Ecology Lecture NotesLecture 28Predation and the LotkaVolterra EquationPredation Members of one species eat those of anotherFive types1Herbivores preying on plants2Carnivores preying on herbivores or other carnivores3Insect Parasitoids eggs laid in or near insect host4Parasites live in their hosts5Cannibalism predators and preysame speciesAntiPredation adaptationsoWarningcolorationoMimicry palatable mimic of unpalatable modelor both model and mimic unpalatableoCamouflage match backgroundunpalatable object oAggression counterattackoAggression stinging biting such as waspsbeesoArmor spines thorns antiswallowing devices large size bluffingoMasting synchronous reproduction eg 1317year cicadasoEscape behaviorsModels of predationoLotka and Volterra also worked on predatorprey interactions and their effects on population growth oTwo equations one for prey and one for predator oLotkaVolterra model can generate predatorprey population cycles because they reciprocally control one anothers population growth dynamical effectoHowever getting stable cyclical dynamics is rare with this particular oversimplified modeloModel Assumptions1No immigration age or genetic structure or time lags2Growth of predator and prey populations strictly limited by each other3Individual predators can consume an infinite number of preyIn reality search and handling time limitsof prey capture4Predatorprey encounters are random
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