BIOM 3200 Lecture 7: Reproductive System

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20. 1 sexual reproduction germ cells or gametes: are formed within the gonads. (tests and ovaries) by a process of reduction division, or meiosis. Numbers of parentheses indicated that the haploid state (23 chromosomes) or diploid state (46 chromosomes). Because only the maternal or paternal allele of the gene pair functions in the tissues of the offspring, these genes are susceptible to mutations that can cause diseases: 23rd pair of chromosomes are the sex chromosomes. Only the tips of the single x chromosome in a male, which contain most of the 54 genes that are homologous in the x and y chromosome, can recombine with the y chromosome during meiosis. If a y bearing sperm cell fertilizes the ovum, the zygote will be xy and male. Inactive x chromosome may be derived from either parent. The inactive x chromosome forms a clump of heterochromatin, which can be seen as a dark spot barr body.

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