BIOM 3200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Leukopoiesis, Antibody, Basophil

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1. 1700-1917: - 1700-1800s - transfusion still fail
- 1800-1900s - properties of blood emerge - leads to successful
human blood transplants
- 1917 - optimize citrate-glucose solutions; prevent coagulation,
allow viable storage for transfusion
2. classical pathway and the lectin pathway are very similar
except...: classical starts w Abs and Cl proteins binding on
pathogen surface.
lectin (carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific
for sugar moieties) starts w lectins binding mannose residues on
pathogen surface.
3. complement - cascade:
- type of INNATE HUMORAL immunity, "ready to go" & in the
- also a type of ADAPTIVE HUMORAL immunity, when
specialized to pathogen.
- made of small blood proteins, mostly inactive forms
- whe complement system triggers, proteases cleave specific
proteins and initiate an amplifying cascade, then goes on to
further cleavages
end result:
- massive amplification of response and..
- formation of cell-killing Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
4. complement pathway: antibodies target pathogenic bacteria -
but that doesn't destroy them
- just marks them as targets for immunological attack
- they could get attacked by innate immune cells (macrophages,
- they can also be attacked by complement, which is a blood
protein defense system
5. erythropoiesis: - uncommitted stem cells go through a series of
stages in bone marrow. once nucleus is expressed, leading to
formation of reticulocyte, the cell released into circulation where
it becomes mature RBC (erythrocyte)
- cytokines play important roles in hematopoiesis
- once nucleus is expelled, reticulocyte moves into circulation
and becomes RBC
6. hematocrit:
- RBC - most abundant blood cells, packed at bottom
- WBC, platelet - light buffy coat
- blood spears, biological dyes can distinguish subtypes
7. hematocrit - hemoglobin: - each RBC ~2800 million Hb-gives
blood red colour
- Hb: 4 globin protein, each w heme group binding Fe.
- Heme Fe combines w O2 (lungs), releases O2 (tissues)
8. hematopoieses: - formation of blood cells
- hematopoietic stem cells originate in embryo and migrate to
different tissues
- liver - major hematopoietic organ on fetus
- bone marrow - major hematopoietic organ after birth
9. hippocrates (460BC-370BC): "Humoral Theory" - blood, phlegm,
black bile (replaced water), yellow bile (gall bladder liquid);
imbalances causes disease
for example yellow bile was found in the gall bladder and
showed itself with jaundice.
10. humoural theory:
opposites cure opposites
- cold remedy cures a hot illness
illness was seen as an internal disorder of the body, not the
result of a specific agent like a bacteria.
by the middle ages, this was seen as "quackery"
- humoural vision of the body lasted until the late 17th century
in Europe
Blood & Immune System Lecture 1
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