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Unit 1-Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology.docx

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Biomedical Sciences
BIOM 2000
Tami Martino

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Unit 1 Chapter 1 1213 Chapter 2 39424547545657 Chapter 3 6382 Chapter 7 230238HomeostasisBodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is constantly changingDynamic system of equilibrium vary within narrow limitsEvery organ system plays a role in maintaining constancy of internal enviro Homeostatic ControlsCommunication within body is essential for homeostasis accomplished by nervous and endocrine system electric signals by nerves or blood borne hormones as information carriersReceptor type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes stimuli by sending information to control center o Information flows from receptor to control center long afferent pathwayControl Center CC determine level at which variable is to be maintained analyzes info it receives and determines appropriate responseEffector Provides means for control center response to stimulus o Info flows from CC to effector along efferent pathway o Influence stimulus by negative most common or positive feedback o Positive feedback is rare because it pushes original disturbance farther away from original stateBiochemistry Chemical Composition of living matterInorganic compounds lack carbon and tend to be small ie water salt acids basesOrganic Compounds carbon containing compounds fairly large covalently bonded molecules ie carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acidsInorganic Compounds Water 1 High heat capacityAbsorbs and releases large amounts of heath before temp changesPrevents sudden changes in body temp 2 PolaritySolvent propertiesExcellent solventSmall reactive chemicals salts acids bases dissolve easilyAct as transport and exchange medium for nutrients respiratory gases and wastes 3 Chemical ReactivityHydrolysis reaction water molecules added to bonds of large moleculesSaltsIonic compound containing cations other than H and anions other than OHMost contain Ca and P ie bones and teethWhen dissolved easily separate into ions ie dissociationNa and K essential for nerve impulsesElectrolytes conduct electricity current in solutionSalt imbalanceBADAcids Sour taste can dissolve metalsProton donor HDissolved in H0 releases H and anions 2 ie acetic acid carbonic acidStrong acids ionize completelyWeak acids ionize incompletelyBasesBitter taste slipperyProton acceptor OHAcidBaseNeutralization ReactionpHRelative concentration of OHand Hin various body fluids is measured in concentration unitsAbove 7basic Below 7acidicRegulated by kidneys lungs buffersBlood 735745Lipidsie meat egg yolks milk oilMost abundant are triglycerides phospholipids steroidsAll have C H O 22 Insoluble in water but dissolve in other lipids and other organic solventsTriglycerides neutral fatsSynthesized by dehydration synthesis3 fatty acid chains attached to single glycerol molecules water is lost at each bond siteShort fatty acid ie olive oil soybean
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