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Lecture 12

BOT 1200 Lecture 12: Lecture 12

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BOT 1200
Gale Bozzo

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Lecture 12: Stimulating Beverages Coffee  Caffeine  Coffee-Anatomy o Interesting chemicals o History of Coffee o Cultivation and Processing o Current Issues Stimulating Beverages We turned to plants as a source of flavourful drinks (fermented beverages, fruit juices) We then looked at beverages that can wake us up Caffeine is a Stimulant!  The alkaloid (secondary compound), caffeine, is structurally similar to adenosine (a chemical messenger in the brain that interacts with nerve cells), a chemical found in the brain that leads to sedation  Adenosine causes arteries to dilate and suppresses motor skills. Caffeine out competes the adenosine to make you feel awake.  There are natural proteins that can to interact with your brain.  Caffeine makes a person more alert because it releases the hormone adrenaline, regulates dopamine levels  Caffeine is a mild stimulant\drug; there is an addiction  These chemicals compete for adenosine receptors in the brain  Within 15 mins of consuming coffee\tea, caffeine reaches peak levels in the bloodstream  Effects: stomach of acid, needing to go to the bathroom, increase in metabolic rate  Cigarette smokers drink more coffee  It takes 2.5 to 6 hours for the caffeine effect to wear off Effects of Caffeine; The good  Improvement of athletic performance and endurance; because draws upon fat reserves and mobilizes energy  Enhances pain-relieving effects of aspirin and acetaminophen  Could help ease Parkinson’s disease symptoms  In the 90s , research said caffeine can reduce Parkinson’s Effects of Caffeine- The Bad  Insomnia, nervousness, irritability and rapid heartbeat  Possible infertility in women and birth defects  Increased release of adrenaline can be problematic (heart risks)  Increased potential risk of rheumatoid arthritis  You get headaches if you don’t drink coffee (withdrawal) How much caffeine is present in these beverages\products? You should not consume more than 400mg of caffeine a day Grande cup: 550mg 7 Eleven: 190mg Espresso: 50-65 Instant: 90mg Red bull: 80 mg 1oz of chocolate= 20mg Caffeine- How much is too much? We consume 2.6 cups of coffee a day Caffeine overdoes: sweating, vomiting, panic attacks Toxic dose: 750mg- anxiety attack 5000mg is fatal Coffee Who deserves credit for discovering coffee? Coffee plants were discovered by goats. The goat was chewing on the fruit of a shrub and he noticed that goat was active and hyper. The goat owner became alert= discovery of coffee Where did the word coffee come from? Two theories on the origin of the term coffee From the Ethiopian area, Kaffa, believed to be the birthplace of coffee From “kahveh” or “qahwah” believed to mean “stimulating” or “a wine tonic that restores the appetite” Before consuming coffee the way we do today it was consumed as a fermented beverage Coffee (Coffea spp.)  There are 20 species in the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae family); same family as the fever bark tree  Vary from small shrubs to big shrubs  Coffee Arabica is the original native to the highlands of Ethiopia; Coffee was cultivated in this world for a very long time  Coffe canephor is native to the hotter and wetter lowlands of West Africa  90% of coffee we produce is from coffee Arabic and the remaining comes from coffea canephora  Canephor has higher caffeine content but it is made to produce decaffeinated coffee  The Arabica was produced in the hgihlands of east Africa, Indian and Vietnam (highlands)  Canephor was produced in the lowlands of west Africa,.  Arabica is suspetibile to coffee rust then canephora  In western part of the world, south America grows coffee  Arabica= jamacia Caneophora= brazil  Best growth occurs under the shade of forest trees. Although today this is not the case  Planrs are shurbs with glossy leaves that are oval shaped and produce cluster of whire petal flowers that produce a scent similar to jasmine  3-4 years- produce these flowers. The flowers do not last long, only a few days, they are slef pollinated that yield fruit that look like cherries (they are commonly referred to as cherries)  These flowers are there to attract pollinators like the palm civet that consume the flesh (mechanism for seed
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