Lecture 12: Stimulating Beverages Coffee
o Interesting chemicals
o History of Coffee
o Cultivation and Processing
o Current Issues
We turned to plants as a source of flavourful drinks (fermented beverages, fruit juices)
We then looked at beverages that can wake us up
Caffeine is a Stimulant!
The alkaloid (secondary compound), caffeine, is structurally similar to adenosine (a
chemical messenger in the brain that interacts with nerve cells), a chemical found in
the brain that leads to sedation
Adenosine causes arteries to dilate and suppresses motor skills. Caffeine out
competes the adenosine to make you feel awake.
There are natural proteins that can to interact with your brain.
Caffeine makes a person more alert because it releases the hormone adrenaline,
regulates dopamine levels
Caffeine is a mild stimulant\drug; there is an addiction
These chemicals compete for adenosine receptors in the brain
Within 15 mins of consuming coffee\tea, caffeine reaches peak levels in the
Effects: stomach of acid, needing to go to the bathroom, increase in metabolic rate
Cigarette smokers drink more coffee
It takes 2.5 to 6 hours for the caffeine effect to wear off
Effects of Caffeine; The good
Improvement of athletic performance and endurance; because draws upon fat
reserves and mobilizes energy
Enhances pain-relieving effects of aspirin and acetaminophen
Could help ease Parkinson’s disease symptoms
In the 90s , research said caffeine can reduce Parkinson’s
Effects of Caffeine- The Bad
Insomnia, nervousness, irritability and rapid heartbeat
Possible infertility in women and birth defects
Increased release of adrenaline can be problematic (heart risks)
Increased potential risk of rheumatoid arthritis
You get headaches if you don’t drink coffee (withdrawal) How much caffeine is present in these beverages\products?
You should not consume more than 400mg of caffeine a day
Grande cup: 550mg
7 Eleven: 190mg
Red bull: 80 mg
1oz of chocolate= 20mg
Caffeine- How much is too much?
We consume 2.6 cups of coffee a day
Caffeine overdoes: sweating, vomiting, panic attacks
Toxic dose: 750mg- anxiety attack
5000mg is fatal
Who deserves credit for discovering coffee?
Coffee plants were discovered by goats.
The goat was chewing on the fruit of a shrub and he noticed that goat was active and hyper.
The goat owner became alert= discovery of coffee
Where did the word coffee come from?
Two theories on the origin of the term coffee
From the Ethiopian area, Kaffa, believed to be the birthplace of coffee
From “kahveh” or “qahwah” believed to mean “stimulating” or “a wine tonic that restores
Before consuming coffee the way we do today it was consumed as a fermented beverage
Coffee (Coffea spp.)
There are 20 species in the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae family); same family as the
fever bark tree
Vary from small shrubs to big shrubs
Coffee Arabica is the original native to the highlands of Ethiopia; Coffee was
cultivated in this world for a very long time
Coffe canephor is native to the hotter and wetter lowlands of West Africa
90% of coffee we produce is from coffee Arabic and the remaining comes from
Canephor has higher caffeine content but it is made to produce decaffeinated coffee
The Arabica was produced in the hgihlands of east Africa, Indian and Vietnam
(highlands) Canephor was produced in the lowlands of west Africa,.
Arabica is suspetibile to coffee rust then canephora
In western part of the world, south America grows coffee
Arabica= jamacia Caneophora= brazil
Best growth occurs under the shade of forest trees. Although today this is not the
Planrs are shurbs with glossy leaves that are oval shaped and produce cluster of
whire petal flowers that produce a scent similar to jasmine
3-4 years- produce these flowers. The flowers do not last long, only a few days, they
are slef pollinated that yield fruit that look like cherries (they are commonly
referred to as cherries)
These flowers are there to attract pollinators like the palm civet that consume the
flesh (mechanism for seed