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Lecture 13

BOT 1200 Lecture 13: Lecture 13

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Department
Botany
Course
BOT 1200
Professor
Gale Bozzo
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 13: Stimulating Beverages: Teas, Cola and Mate. Tea: A world- Class Beverage  The word tea is from Chinese dialect terms for this beverage: Tchai, cha, and Tay  Becoming more popular due to medicinal studies  Most widely consumed caffeinated beverage  Produced in Africa, Asia and South American Not all tea beverages are “tea”  Referred to as infusions of plants but these are distinct though they have some similarities.  Chamomile  Chrysanthemum  Yerba Mate Who is drinking tea? Turkey is the highest nation consuming tea (550 cup a year) Turkey- 10 cups a day Followed by Morroco, Ireland, Mauritania nd We are 62 in the world. We consume 225 cups a year Tea Taxonomy- Then and Now  Tea is a dried and blended preparation of the leaves of camellia sinensis and its varieties (Theaceae family).  A variety is a taxamonic term that determines a rank in it species. They interbreed freely but are geographically isolated  1752- Classified by Linnaeus as Thea sinensis on the basis of the number of flower petals Tea Taxonomy then and now:  initially, Thea referred to cultivated tea and Camellia was used for non-tea varieties.  Today camellia is the accepted genus name.  According to Chinese legend, Shen Nung accidently discovered tea.  This legend is found in the 780 A.D Cha China (tea classic) claims Shen Nung discovered tea when a gust of wind blew tea leaves into a pot of boiling water. He than sipped it and noticed it had a stimulating effect China Tea: Cammelia sinensis var. sinensis  a small, slow-growing shrub (1-2M tall)  Multi branches that produces dark green leaves. Young leaves have trichomes that have aroma of caffeine  Older leaves, lower to the ground are not used for tea  Small, narrow, serrates and dark green leaves. The original tea of India:  Competing legend claims tea originates in India and Prince Guatama (founder of Buddhism) brought it to China.  In fact, the habit of chewing tea leaves was well establishes by the time of alleged discoveries  Chewing the leaf started before the beverage form (plant associated in this legend) Assam Tea: Camellia sinensis var. assamica.  Tall (10-15m), quick growing tree.  Larger than Chinese team  Consists of large, horizontal, broad, light green leaves.  White leaves with many petals Tea Varieties display distinct floral morphology:  Variations in style number and degree of style fusion.  The number of styles and whether they are diffused or not. And whether the styles are together or fused. Where does tea come from today?  China and India (also possibly Myanmar and Thailand) share the distinction of tea’s botanical birthplace.  A major source of cultivation of tea is China, India, Africa, Indonesia, Tyland  At one time, china was the main producer  500 A.D- Turkish traders who bartered for it at the Mongolian border introduced Tea to the West.  960-1127 A.D- Song Dynasty realized tea’s commercial value and actively exported it to Tibet. Tea arrives in England:  1650: Tea, Coffee and cocoa all arrive in London, although a tea was already available in Lisbon in 1550.  Why did tea become so popular in Europe?  Tea became popular when prince Charles married a Portuguese princess, who had an addiction to tea. Introduced tea to the royal court  Water had many diseases so the water had to be boiled. When you have tea you have clean boiled water that can be flavoured Westerners acquires tea under a sophisticated trading network  1650-1850: Tea exported from China through port of Canton- Southern China  Holland and England battles for control of tea trade routes- England won out when they made better ships, which were faster.  Took species to Persian Guelph to get salt, salt was taken to acquire clubs in the west indies. The cloves were taken back to India to get silver, which was taken to china to get tea and silk  No one in Europe knew how tea was grown, treated, sorted and blended  The route of tea in China included: - Village plantation- cultivation, buyer, would buy what is harvested - Tea centre in each district - Provincial centre for sorting and blending - Canton for more blending and adulteration- unpacked, blended What was tea adulterated with?  Twigs from Camellia and other Theaceae plants.  Wood, pine bark, alien leaves, sawdust, soot, blue dyes. (when the teach reached England)  Legitimate additives were orange, lemon and bergamot Tea Cultivation  Tea can be cultivated by seeds or stem cuttings  When the tea bush reaches half a meter they prune it, this forces it to grow in a v shape making from leaves to harvest  Tea is cultivated as estates known as “gardens”  Rows of plants are separated by 4-5 feet 
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