BUS 2090 Lecture Notes - Seat Belt, B. F. Skinner, Absenteeism

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Published on 2 Feb 2013
Department
Course
Professor
BUS*2090 Lecture Notes
January 17th 2013
Learning in Organizations
Use to teach practical skills
Intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking etc.
Theories of Learning
Operant Conditioning (B.F Skinner)
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary or learned behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a
punishment
Use of reinforcement to increase the probability of desired behaviour
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation & direct experience
People respond to how they view & define consequences not to the objective consequences themselves
4 stages to the model…
1. Attentional Processes
2. Retention Processes
3. Motor Reproduction Processes
4. Reinforcement Processes
Shaping/Influencing Behaviour
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to desired response
Reinforcement: A reinforcer is a stimulus
Types of Reinforcements
1. Positive Reinforcement
Provide reward for desired behaviour
2. Negative Reinforcement
Removing unpleasant consequences when the desired behaviour occurs
The behaviour strengthened & increased by its terminating the undesirable consequences
Eg. Dinging of “seat belt unbuckled” notification is stopped when put of seatbelt
3. Punishment
Applying an un-desirable condition to eliminate an undesired behaviour
E.g Detention when late to class in middle school
4. Extinction
Withholding reinforcement of a behaviour to cause its cessation (stop it)
E.g prof ignores you over & over when you raise hand…you will stop raising your hand
Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement
Reward are not contingent on some specific behaviour (need immediate link to behaviour)
Neglect diversity
Neglect important sources of reinforcement
Social recognition: give employee recognition publically
Feedback
Reinforcement Strategies
Continuous Reinforcement: Desired behaviour reinforced everytime it is demonstrated
Should apply for quick improvement in behaviour
Once stop reinforcement behaviour declines quick
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Document Summary

A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary or learned behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Use of reinforcement to increase the probability of desired behaviour. People can learn through observation & direct experience. People respond to how they view & define consequences not to the objective consequences themselves. 4 stages to the model : attentional processes, retention processes, motor reproduction processes, reinforcement processes. Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to desired response. Provide reward for desired behaviour: negative reinforcement. Removing unpleasant consequences when the desired behaviour occurs. The behaviour strengthened & increased by its terminating the undesirable consequences. Dinging of seat belt unbuckled notification is stopped when put of seatbelt: punishment. Applying an un-desirable condition to eliminate an undesired behaviour. E. g detention when late to class in middle school: extinction. Withholding reinforcement of a behaviour to cause its cessation (stop it)

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