What Is Communication?
Communication is the process by which information is exchanged between a sender
and a receiver.
interpersonal communication—the exchange of information between people.
Effective communication occurs when the right people receive the right information
in a timely manner. Violating any of these three conditions results in a communication
episode that is ineffective.
Basics of Organizational Communication
Communication by Strict Chain of Command
Chain of command.Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships.
Downward communication.Information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom.
Upward communication.Information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top.
Horizontal communicatioInformation that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort.
the reality of organizational communication shows that the formal chain of command is an incomplete and sometimes
ineffective path of communication.
Deficiencies in the Chain of Command
Informal Communication. The chain of command obviously fails to consider informal communication between members.
FilteringThe tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission
open door policy, in which any organizational member below them can communicate directly without going through the chain
Slowness. Even when the chain of command transmits information faithfully, it can
be painfully slow. The chain of command can be even slower for horizontal communication
between departments, and it is not a good mechanism for reacting quickly to
Manager–Employee Communication( suggestions. Perceptions
that managers are good communicators tend to be correlated positively with organizational
How Good Is Manager–Employee Communication? Research indicates that managers and employees often differ in their perceptions of the
●How employees should and do allocate time
●How long it takes to learn a job
●The importance employees attach to pay
●The amount of authority the employee has
●The employee’s skills and abilities
●The employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance
●The manager’s leadership style 4
Perceptual differences like these suggest a lack of openness in communication,
which might contribute to much role conflict and ambiguity. In fact, a lack of openness
in communication reduces employee job satisfaction
Barriers to Effective Manager–Employee Communication
Conflicting Role Demands. In the previous chapter, we noted that the leadership
role requires managers to attend to both task and social-emotional functions. Many
managers have difficulties balancing these two role demands.
Mum effect. The tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others
grapevine is the informal communication network that exists in any organization.
As such, the grapevine often cuts across formal lines of communication that are recognized
We generally think of the grapevine as communicating information by word of mouth. However, written notes, emails,
and fax messages can contribute to the transmission of information
Organizations often have several grapevine systems, some of which may be loosely coordinated.
The grapevine can transmit information relevant to the performance of the organization
as well as personal gossip.
at least 75 percent of the non-controversial organization-related information carried by the grapevine is correct.
jobs that require movement throughout the organization also give their holders much opportunity to serve as grapevine
Occupants of work stations that receive a lot of traffic are good candidates to be grapevine transmitters.
Rumour .- An unverified belief that is in general circulation.
Management hasbeen known for planting ideas with the office gossips to tap in to the
organization’s informal networks.13Finally, when grapevine information extends outside
the organization, it can serve as a potent informal recruiting source
Blogs: Effective Communication Tool or Cyberspace Menace?
some companies have embraced blogs as a way of assessing the internal climate of the workforce and gaining access to the employee
They can be a breeding ground for personal attacks against managers and unfounded rumours and gossip, and they can also disseminate
confidential company information.
They are anonymous
Experts recommend that companies create policies on blogging for their employees, outlining what is and is not acceptable in blogs
The Verbal Language of Work
Jargon. Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations. While jargon is an efficient means of communicating with peers and provides a
touch of status to those who have mastered it, it can also serve as a barrier to
communicating with others. Eg. Between depts.. and outsiders
The Non-Verbal Language of Work
Non-verbal communication refers to the transmission of messages by some medium
other than speech or writing.
Body language is non-verbal communication that occurs by means of the sender’s bodily
motions and facial expressions or the sender’s physical location in relation to the
In general, senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they
●position themselves physically close to the receiver;
●touch the receive