CHEM 1040 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Kinetic Energy, Electronegativity

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CHEM 1040- Lecture 2- Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
One must understand the electron distribution in elements in order to understand the periodic
The distribution of electrons is what affects/creates the properties of elements
o … including how they form compounds
Distribution of electrons includes:
o Where the electrons in an element are location (s, p, d, or f cloud)
o How many electrons are in the “shells” (2, 6, 10, or 14)
o How far they are from the nucleus
All these features combined explain why elements share, lose, or gain electrons when bonding
Electronegativity primarily determines whether an element gains or loses electrons
when bonding to another element
Quantum Numbers:
Quantum Numbers are the standards used to determine the positioning of electrons
around an atom
First three identify the position of an electron
The last one accounts for the spin of an electron
o Explains their magnetic properties
1. Principal Quantum Number (n)
The potential energy of an electron is dependant on n
o Smaller n= lower energy
is dependant distance between the orbital and the nucleus
Possible values of n= 1,2,3,4…etc
2. Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)
Number of sublevels/shapes possible within an energy level
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