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Lecture

CHEM 1050 Lecture Notes - Calorimetry, Exothermic Process, Intermolecular Force


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1050
Professor
Harvey Marmurek

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1
Chemistry 1050
Lecture notes summarized
WEEK 1 and 2 Notes
Intro to thermodynamics:
It is the interconversion of different forms of energy
Examples:
o Heat, mechanical work, electrical work, chemical energy
It is an essential function for understanding the physical and biological sciences
It is basis for the physical description of living matter
Energy Transfer:
Chemical Reactions:
- They involve energy transfer between: the system and the surroundings
The system is defined as the:
- The part of the universe under observation
- Examples include: engine, electrical cell, reaction in a flask
The surroundings are defined as:
- The rest of the universe (everything outside of the system)
- Therefore the universe is made up of the system and the surroundings
The SYSTEM can be:
OPEN:
- Both mass and energy may enter and leave
- Examples: beakers, open water bottles
CLOSED:
Energy can be exchanged but no mass can enter or leave
Examples: sealed container, closed water bottle
ISOLATED:
Nothing enters or leaves
Example: thermos

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2
State Function:
The state of the system can be defined by a set of variables
Examples: T, P, V, n, etc.
o Temperature does not change with size
Only initial and final points effect this function
The path is not important
2 classifications
o Intensive
Independent of size
Example: T, P, etc.
o Extensive
Dependent upon size
Example: mass, V, n, etc.
Energy Transfer:
By transferring energy into or out of the system, the internal energy of the system changes
The internal energy (U) of a system is defined as the sum of the kinetic and potential energy
U can change in 2 ways:
1. Heat (q)
2. Work (w)
Work is mechanically based
Heat into the system, thermal surroundings lose heat; system gain heat
U cannot be measured directly we can only measure changes in delta U
D U reaction = U products U reactants
By any combination of q and w, we can change U:
THIS IS THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS!!!!!!
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another
The energy can also be transferred into or out of the system
This is also the law of the conservation of energy
Heat:
Heat content is defined by temperature, T
If 2 objects are the same temp no heat transfer will occur
Heat flows from high to low
The cause of energy flow is molecular motion
Heat and Chemical Reactions:
The amount of heat depends on the size of the system, this makes q an extensive property
Heat given off or absorbed in a constant pressure system is known as the Enthalpy Change
(Delta H)
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