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Lecture 7

CIS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Https, Online Identity, Communications Protocol

Computing and Information Science
Course Code
CIS 1000
Zoe Zhu

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UNIT 07: How the internet works
Leaning outcomes:
Describe the management of the Internet;
Explain how Internet’s networking components interact;
Describe Internet data transmission and define the terms protocol, IP address, and
domain name;
Describe web building technologies such as HTML, style sheets, and multimedia;
Recognize how email and instant messaging work and explain steps to secure and
protect your electronic communication.
Basics of the internet
- smaller networks that make up the internet are in charge by unis, cities, private-
sector companies and even individuals
- National science foundation (NSF) own pieces of the communication
infrastructure that makes the internet possible
Internet networking
- Infrastructure: Internet backbone
o main paths of internet are called internet backbone and they are the fastest
communication path of the internet and used to transmit large quantities of
data between major locations
o backbone consists of optical carrier lines aka OC lines: high-speed fibre-
optic cables designed to support heavy traffic
o your connection to backbone is through internet service providers (ISPs),
they are in charge of points of presence aka POPs which allows everyone
in area or city to connect to internet
o POP: large bank of servers and switches that are focused on receiving info
and sending it to the right direction
o ISP referred to as Tier-1 since they are capable of offering internet service
on their own, if they operated without any other ISP then they would be
cut off from sections of the internet hosted by those ISP
o Instead connect to internet exchange points (IXPs) which allow their
portion of the backbone to connect to a portion belonging to another
- Data transmission
o Circuit switching: transmission where a dedicated connection is created
between communicating particles, not used anymore because a connection
for each communication is inefficient, however that are guaranteed to
arrive in the order they went
o Packet switching: transmission were a message is split into small chunks
called packets and then sent out onto the internet where its up to each node
to determine what direction to send them in. More efficient than circuit
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