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Lecture 11

CLAS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Peloponnesian War, Great Fear, Smyrnium Olusatrum

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
John Walsh

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Macedon (Philip and Alexander) (Peloponnesian War Phase Two)
4th century is the century of macedon
5th century ended with the Peloponnesian war
Late 400̓s BC Spartans become dominant power, had won the war
Spartans were so beat up they were exhausted, and couldn̓t win the peace
Athenians forced to tear down walls
4th century is when Plato founds his academy
Also during this period was an interesting phenomenon
Sparta and Athens no longer major threats
Rise of thebes
Thebens temporaily become most powerful city state in Greece
Dominant power after Spartan defeat
Institute policy where young members of the Macedonian ruling family must
go down to Thebes
Youngest heir to the throne was sent down as a hostage, Philip II
Was educated by the Thebans, learned their secrets
Becomes the lover of an important Theban
Philip II had one eye (lost it in Methone laying siege to the city, struck in the
eye with an arrow 355 BC)
His military success was largely due to his time in thebes, a sarissa was a
length spike that replaced the doru spear
o Sarissa hoplite was deepend (50 men)
Began steady progress of expansion north around regions of Macedonia,
provoked the southern Greeks
o Great fear and concern among Athenians
o They relied on the north for food, were afraid Philips northward
expansion would cut them off
o Alliance among southern greeks to stop Philips rise to power
Chaeronea 338 BC
Southern armies faced Philip
Turning point in history
Much of his army was commanded by his son, Alexander (the Great) (would have
been around 18)
Philip was able to defeat the alliance of the southern Greek army
Philip installed himself as a leader of the Greek world
Realized that Greeks rejected the notion of the rule of kings (would never accept
him as a king)
Organized the greek world into a ͂league̓: League of Corinth elected Philip as
Hegemon (leader of the league)
Victory of diplomacy
Creates a cult of divinity
The defeat is the last of the free southern world
Shortly after Philip becomes the Hegemon he was assassinated (October 336 BC)
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