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Lecture 13

CLAS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Pax Romana, Gladius, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus


Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
Professor
John Walsh
Lecture
13

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THE ROMAN ARMY
legio
to select, to choose
Romans were selected to partake in the
army and fight as required
o Formed a phalanx
o Involved romans wealthy enough
to provide their own equipment
triplex acies
the three-line system
Romans adapted a new organizational approach from
the samnites
o Lines broken up by age
Front=youngest, the fresh recruits
Behind=seasoned veterans, been in a
few battles
Behind them= old campaigners
o Checkerboard style
Continuous fresh front
Allowed lines to pass between each
other
Gaius Marius
Reform to the military
Marius reformed the roman army to meet the demand for a
large, full time army
o Recruitment
All social status could join, even the landless with
no wealth
o Equipment
State provides roman equipment, not the soldier
themselves (goal=to project roman superiority)
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caligae
military boots
Romans could march 30k a day bc of these military boots
o Open slits to allow moisture and air to circulate
o Nails on the bottom
o Very well made
o Origin of the name from the emperor Caligula
castra
fortified camp
Large rectangular fortifications were
built by the romans if for a season
o Was a projection of roman
infrastructure
Romans= trained in
building
gladius hispaniensis
Spanish short sword
Romans admired this sword and adapted it as the main weapon of
the roman army
o Designed specifically for thrusting against the enemy
Short= quick underhand stabbing
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vegetius de re militari
drills
Romans spent hours practicing rhythmic thrusting motion
o In the heat of battle this produced almost a conditioned
response
o Target= groin and lower abdomen
o Necessary bc romans now professional full time
employees of the state
pilum
javelin
Javelin=good for fighting at a distance
o Usually 2
pugio
short stabbing dagger
Pugio=like a punch
o Rarely used in combat
lorica hamata
chain mail
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