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Lecture

Week 8.docx


Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
Professor
John Walsh

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Week 8
Monday, March 05, 2012
Republic gains an empire
Security
o In general, they began to conquer entire italian boot for their own security
o Remove potential invaders
o Buffer/protective field between them
o To conquer north and south of them
Gallic invasions - Italian consolidation
Pyrrhus 318-272 BC: Hellenistic world
o Hellenistic king
o Descendent of alexander's generals
Divide et impera
Extending the franchise: consolidation to the centre of power 4th century BC
Tarentum
Greek world, Tarentum, southern italy
Brought them in contact with hellenistic world
Sparta, Dorian colonization (8th century), Partheniae
Greeks went through period of colonization
Partheniae
o Sons of virgins
Spartans had a man power shortage, and sent home all the young soliders to Sparta to
impregnate all the unmarried virgins in Sparta to breed more soldiers
Pyrrhus
Tarentum was connected to Greece
The Greeks appealled for help, to their historic founders, the greek world
He involves himself with roman world
Helped preserve freedom of the Greek people in south Italy
Inspired by his trip to Delphic Oracle
o Said it was a good idea to fight with Romans
First to use elephants in warfare
Hieronymus of Cardia 7/3
History is entirely lost
Lost 7000 men in battle to 3000 of Pyrrhus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus 15/13
They lost 15000 men to 13 000 of Pyrrhus
"One more such victory, and we shall be undone"
After 3rd victory, Pyrrhus was noted to declare this quote
Key strengths of romans
Even by beating them in battlefield, there was no success in victory
Two things to note about Romans
1. Relentless ability to remain strong on battlefield

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2. More italians would come over to Pyrrhus
People of real steel, losing all three battles but driving the invader out of country
Punic War (264-146 BC)
As they pushed southwards, they extended influence to the people of Carthage
Where interest start to collide is with carthage
o Over Sicily
Carthage was a trading empire in Mediterranean
Romans in Carthage fought three wards
Rome and Carthage: 3 wars
Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthagianian" with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician
ancestry
First Punic War - Sicily
Maritime empire vs emergent landpower
Roman navy developed
Peace treaty 241 BC, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Mare Nostrum
o By the treaty, the Carthagians would control Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica
o Romans had first oversee possession
o Mare Nostrum
Our sea
Second Punic War
Young Carthagian prince, Hannibal
Grew up barring wound to Carthagian pride, his father made him swear an oath in blood he will
avenge loss upon Romans
He attempted to do that in adulthood by starting second Punic war
Led invasion of Italian peninsula
With an army of elephants, he marched into italian peninsula from Spain
Trebia, Trasimene, Cannae
Italian Allies
o When Romans conquered people of Italy, the Romans exported a social structure of
conquest
o City of Rome was run through Patron/client relationship
o Basic roman structure of their city, richer men became patrons of poorer men and vise
versa
o Was responsible for their wellbeing
Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
o Success in Africa
o Sent army to chase Hannibal and destroy army
Hispania
Philip V, First Macedonian War, post Zama (202) Cynoscephelae (197), T. Quinctius Falmininus
'Freedom of the Greeks', Crointh (146)
o Supported Hannibal in war with Romans
o Defeated in Zama, romans turned attention to punishing Greeks for supporting Hannibal
o Punished them in many different wars
Romans adopted a great battle form
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