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University of Guelph
Classical Studies
CLAS 1000
John Walsh

th Chapter 7- Greek Life and Culture in the 5 Century Avoiding war was important- had to protect grandeur of hellinic civilization. Polis became fragmented once again, boding Greeks ill future. GREECE AFTER THE 30 YEARS PEACE After signing of the peace in 445- Greeks optimistic Hindsight valuable- events in 440’s and 450’s are significant 460- Athens allied with Megara- access to the port of Pegae 450- many more alliances formed, Leontini, rival of Corinth. Commerce with western Greeks played a key role in Athenian economy, eventually other greek cities adopted their currency Athens had an interest in the lands of the west- Pericles decision to found a colony in Italy Athens interest in Thrace and the Black sea- imported lots of grain and timber 440 -Revolt in the east, feared the survival of Athens empire. Samos almost won control of Athens once, aided with help from Sardis. Byzantium revolted soon after. Athens eventually confiscated their navy’s and they returned to the empire. 437- Athens established colony of Amphipolis in the north east- strategic to protect Athens access to the black sea. Amphipolis surrended to Sparta in 424 Not known how Sparta viewed the world between the 30 years peace and their declaration of war on Athens in 432. When peace hung in balance, Greece had much cultural activity TH PHYSICAL SPACE OF THE POLIS: ATHENS 5 CENTURY Each polis unique in culture The Acropolis- used to mean just the big hill in any polis. In Athens it was very spiritual- associated with gods and rulers Parthenon was a blend of Doric and Ionic elements (pg 194). Rectangle 8x17 columns. Built from marble Sculpture important to the Greeks. Temples not for congregation but private home of a divinity. Parthenon was for Athena The Erechtheion – temple for posiedon and Athena- completely ionic columns Temples made to show allegiance to the empire Agora- center for human activities (market, exchange, judicial, social) with a special place for the gods. (pg 199 figure 7.10) The hillside of Pnyx where assembly met- important to Athenians – speeches motions, debates INTELLECTUAL LIFE In Hesiod’s day – universe was chaos, order emerged with kosmos. Biggest contribution of 6 century thinkers was to throw this away and explain world by material processes Ionian rationalists focused on natural world. Anaxagoras believed everything was divisible and the sun was not a god but a very hot rock Empodocles from Sicily based the universe from 4 elements – earth water air and fire Leucippus believed in small particles atoma, meaning uncuttable. The beginning of the word atom These people were considered philosophers not scientists- prayer still very important Case studies formed basis of the doctrines of Hippocrates- Greeks didn’t discover much about medicine, but mostly commitment to seek rational explanations for natural phenomena TH HISTORICAL AND DRAMATIC LITERATURE OF 5 CENTURY Verbally- main achievements of Athens were history and tragedies- important tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides and Herodotus history HERODOTUS- born in Ionia- exposed to rationalism and very inquisitive- why he wanted to follow origins of history. Would interrogate his parents about the Persian wars. He would sometimes change history around to make it more impactful – example of conversation between Solon and Croesus to represent the communications between Greeks and Persians. He also included clever women in many of his histories- showing he thought women not stupid. THUCYDIDES- did a history about the war he participated in, very different than Herodotus- didn’t believe women important. Exiled when he failed to keep the Spartans from taking Amphipolis. After that he couldn’t gather info from Athenian assembly, only outside sources. Believes the truth is the most important. Described as the 1 scientific historian THE BIRTH OF TRAGEDY- tragedies vital for spiritual and intellectual life of the polis, plays would go on for days, deal with painful issues- demanded high intelligence from the audience. All parts played by men, not encouraged to portray personality unlike todays films and plays. Tragedy meant to be heroic unlike real life so as to not be trivial. No violence was allowed on
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