Chapter 9: The Fourth Century: Changing ideas, Continuing Warfare
• The long war taught Sparta a vital lesson about the certainty of naval power.
• When Sparta became a navel power, the Athenians lost an important advantage,
lost the war and lost their empire.
• The economy was destroyed because of the ongoing wars. Commerce by land and
sea was disrupted; agriculture suffered in most of Greece and the redoubled labor
of women and slaves was not sufficient to compensate for the death of farmers or
their long campaigns away from home.
• The amount of women working outside of the home increase during wartime
• There were several plagues (over eighty thousand people died in Athens because
• Thousands of neodamodeis (new citizens)
• The shattering of faith fostered a questioning spirit that opened the door to the
reflections of Socrates, Xenophon and Plato.
• The Peloponnesian war transformed the Greek world but it did not destroy it.
Oligarchy at Athens: The Thirty Tyrants
• The Thirty Tyrants were a proSpartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its
defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC.
• They are referred to as "the oligarchy" or "the Thirty”. The expression "Thirty
Tyrants" is due to later historians.
• Its two leading members were Critias and Theramenes.
• In states formally allied to Athens, Lysander set up “decarchies”, boards or ten
proSpartan officials designed to ensure oligarchic government and loyalty to
• In Athens itself, he set up a board of 30 men that were willing to sacrifice
democratic principles. Not all were committed to Oligarchs, especially to the
• The prominent of those men came to be the Thirty Tyrants
• Oligarch Critas was a pupil of Socrates, a relative of Plato, a brilliant intellectual
and a long time admirer of the Spartan constitution. After being banished after the
fall of the four hundred, he came back with much vengeance.
• The thirty tyrants lead by Critias and Theramenes, put an end to many Spartan
lives, as they killed those of outstanding wealth, birth or reputation.
• They even held their position with seven hundred Spartan Soldiers
• Not all victims of the thirty were citizens who could possibly have been perceived
as political enemies; many were wealthy metics whose property the thirty
• Theramenes grew very tired of the blood bath and Critias thought that he might
start a resistance movement.
• Theramenes began changing the minds of many of those who listened. Usually at
this time a proper trial would have been due however Critias believed that
Theramenes did not deserve a trial and forced him to drink Hemlock. • Soon after the Thirty were undone by their own abandonment. Spartan citizens
grew increasingly frightened, and many fled to other areas.
• The thirty had alienated many Greeks from Sparta
• In Thebes, the Athenians under the leadership of Thrasybulus joined up to take
the city back and in their attacks killed Critias.
• Eventually, it was declared that only the thirty and their chief officers could be
brought to justice for the crimes they committed.
• The work of reestablishing democratic Athens then began.
The Trial of Socrates (399 B.C)
• After horrible warfare, Socrates came about mesmerizing various children and
• Parents and other citizens began to get annoyed of all the attention that was being
brought to Socrates word.
• Three Athenians Anytus, Meletus and Lycon decided that they had had enough
of this eccentric old philosopher who haunted the public spaces of Athens
confuting the careless in argument.
• Socrates had been outlining the drawbacks of democracy (something that the
Athenians were trying to perfect) and had been the teacher of at least two men
that had destroyed Athens.
• The Amnesty had prevented these men for accusing Socrates with inciting his
pupils to treason so instead they came up with: “ Socrates did not believe in the
gods of the state; he taught new gods; and he corrupted the young.
• If you wish to read everything Socrates believed in, turn to page. 258*
• This type of accusation was new in Athens and Socrates was put on trial that
took only 1 day
• When the trial took place, he was able to convince nearly half of the jury 501
Athenians but had seemed to loose by 30 votes.
• Meletus (the initial accuser) proposed the penalty of death. ( many people
believed that Socrates would have proposed an alternative punishment, but in fact
it is said that he simply chose to die before he saw old age)
• Socrates was then executed by one of the traditional Athenian ways, drinking
• Before he died he prophesied that Athenians would bring great odium on
themselves for killing him and they were right
• Throughout history afterwards, his views and teachings would only become more
popular and powerful in Athenian culture and everyday life
The Fourth Century: Changing ideas, Continuing Warfare… continued
• When an extraordinary individual arose to the north in the form of Philip of
Macedon, the inability of the Greeks to work together productively had dramatic
consequences, and the autonomous polis ceased to be the defining political
institution of the Greek world.
• The hostility of the Greek states found a new focus, Sparta • In 395 Sparta’s old allies Cornith and Thebes were so bitter that that actually
combined with Athens to attack their old hegemon. – Neither polis got anything
out of the war.
• The war that followed was called the Corinthian War.
• This first cause of this war was because of the death of Lysander.
• The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until
387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states; Thebes, Athens,
Corinth, and Argos; which were initially backed by Persia.
• The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in
which both Thebes and Sparta intervened.
• The deeper cause was hostility towards Sparta provoked by that city's
expansionism in Asia Minor, central and northern Greece and even the west.
• In fighting this pointless war, the Greeks deployed not only hoplites and sailors
but also a wide variety of lightly armed troops including archers, slingers and
• The creation of the new type of long spear – the Peltast ( was longer and taller
then before with a pointed, more oblong arrow head, became very useful)
• As time passed the Persian king Artaxerxes decided that his money would be
better spend backing the Spartans to keep Athens in check. Athens and its allies
were compelled to accept a humiliating peace.
Sparta, Athens, and Thebes
• Athens was allied with Thebes for mutual protection against Sparta. They also
moved forward with their plans to make the Second Athenian League (a naval
• The league declared that “ all allies will remain independent and autonomous,
enjoying the form of government they wish, admitting no garrisons or magistrates
and paying no tribute”
• From this point on, the history of Greece