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Chapter 10.doc

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Classical Studies
CLAS 1000
John Walsh

Chapter 10 – Philip II and the rise of Macedon One of the reasons that Macedon was successful in conquering the Greek states was because of the instability of the other nations. Through the political divisions and economic strains, the development of a consistent policy in Athens was hard. Also, this prevented poleis such as Athens, Sparta and Thebes to make an alliance. Early Macedon • For early Macedonian history, the kings of Macedon rules unstable kingdoms. Macedonian kings struggles constantly to maintain their independence while striving to assert their authority over the local who ruled various regions that made up the kingdom of Macedon. • Macedonia’s geography also made it even harder for there to be a successful kingdom. However, the heart of Macedon had a larger agriculture population. It had mountains, forest and mineral deposits. • The only way that Macedon would be able to come a successful nation and be able to grow and expand its power was if the tribes who jealously guarded their freedom from the control of the lowland Macedonians kings could cohesively work together. Macedonian society and kingship • In antiquity neither Macedonians nor Greeks considered the Macedonians to be Greeks and the two cultures had little in common. • In Greek civilization, cities were the core of the kingdoms were as prior to Philip’s reign, city life in Macedonia was limited. • Another thing that differentiates the Macedonian culture from the Greek culture was the Macedonian kings believed in polygamous relationships and their love of wine. War and hunting were central to the life of a Macedonian noble. • Before a young man could be recognized as a man, they had to spear a boar and kill an enemy. Many feuds resulted from heavy drinking, competitions for preference at the royal court and rivalries over the favours of young men and women were common among both cultures. The predecessors of Philip II & The reign of Philip II • When Philip II came to power in 360 BC, Macedon was faced with a crisis. They were chronically instable which left their kingdom to be subject to threats from both Greek and non-Greek enemies. • Philip II was the last son of Amyntas and his wife was an Ilyrian woman named Eurydice. • When Philip II was exile to the island of Thebes, he learned many things that he would use to help him defeat the Thebans. He got invaluable insight into contemporary Greek political and military tactics. • With the chaos that was going on in Macedon and all the deaths of Philips brother. He was sent back to Macedon and was the sole heir to the throne. The reforms of Philip II • Phillip II’s reign coincided with a revolution in military tactics and weaponry that ended the Greek’s dominance of the battlefield. • Philip created a new phalanx to replace the old undisciplined military. The soldiers in the phalanx were equipped with new weapons and had new role in battle. • Each member of the phalanx wore a metal helmet and carried a small shield and short sword. But his new discovery and main weapon was the sarissa which was a big pike around 8ft long. • Philip strengthened the bonds between the army and the king so they to felt like one of his nobles, his personal companions. Philip, Athens and the Peace of Philocrates • Philip had a tense relationship with the Athenians since the begging of his reign because he bought their neutrality by promising them to restore Amphipolis and then capturing all of Athens principal allies in the north Aegean. • Athens was unable to respond to Philips actions because of th
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