Chapter 10 – Philip II and the rise of Macedon
One of the reasons that Macedon was successful in conquering the Greek states was
because of the instability of the other nations. Through the political divisions and
economic strains, the development of a consistent policy in Athens was hard. Also, this
prevented poleis such as Athens, Sparta and Thebes to make an alliance.
• For early Macedonian history, the kings of Macedon rules unstable kingdoms.
Macedonian kings struggles constantly to maintain their independence while
striving to assert their authority over the local who ruled various regions that
made up the kingdom of Macedon.
• Macedonia’s geography also made it even harder for there to be a successful
kingdom. However, the heart of Macedon had a larger agriculture population. It
had mountains, forest and mineral deposits.
• The only way that Macedon would be able to come a successful nation and be
able to grow and expand its power was if the tribes who jealously guarded their
freedom from the control of the lowland Macedonians kings could cohesively
Macedonian society and kingship
• In antiquity neither Macedonians nor Greeks considered the Macedonians to be
Greeks and the two cultures had little in common.
• In Greek civilization, cities were the core of the kingdoms were as prior to
Philip’s reign, city life in Macedonia was limited.
• Another thing that differentiates the Macedonian culture from the Greek culture
was the Macedonian kings believed in polygamous relationships and their love of
wine. War and hunting were central to the life of a Macedonian noble.
• Before a young man could be recognized as a man, they had to spear a boar and
kill an enemy. Many feuds resulted from heavy drinking, competitions for
preference at the royal court and rivalries over the favours of young men and
women were common among both cultures.
The predecessors of Philip II & The reign of Philip II
• When Philip II came to power in 360 BC, Macedon was faced with a crisis. They
were chronically instable which left their kingdom to be subject to threats from
both Greek and non-Greek enemies.
• Philip II was the last son of Amyntas and his wife was an Ilyrian woman named
• When Philip II was exile to the island of Thebes, he learned many things that he
would use to help him defeat the Thebans. He got invaluable insight into
contemporary Greek political and military tactics. • With the chaos that was going on in Macedon and all the deaths of Philips
brother. He was sent back to Macedon and was the sole heir to the throne.
The reforms of Philip II
• Phillip II’s reign coincided with a revolution in military tactics and weaponry that
ended the Greek’s dominance of the battlefield.
• Philip created a new phalanx to replace the old undisciplined military. The
soldiers in the phalanx were equipped with new weapons and had new role in
• Each member of the phalanx wore a metal helmet and carried a small shield and
short sword. But his new discovery and main weapon was the sarissa which was a
big pike around 8ft long.
• Philip strengthened the bonds between the army and the king so they to felt like
one of his nobles, his personal companions.
Philip, Athens and the Peace of Philocrates
• Philip had a tense relationship with the Athenians since the begging of his reign
because he bought their neutrality by promising them to restore Amphipolis and
then capturing all of Athens principal allies in the north Aegean.
• Athens was unable to respond to Philips actions because of th