CLAS 1000 11/01/2012
Greeks said that the landscape influences people. They had mountains, valleys and their
communities were isolated.
Earliest known archaeological landscape known to have Greeks inhabits it. – Neolithic
• 19 century?? The Bronze age divided the Greek
• European explorers looked for bronze to find if what Homers books and Homers
tales were true.
• Arthur Evans was a British archaeologist who searched for Crete and thought he
• Crete was a complex building – maze like complexity which showed that the
civilizations were very advances.
• He thought he found King of Crete Minos.
Zeus and Europa
• 750 BC did not have writing so they would tell stories.
• Zeus reflected the behaviour of Greek men. He had a great lust for women.
• He had numerous affairs with women from earth.
• He seduced and abducted princesses Europa which was a normal behaviour for
men in a patriarchal society. He turns into a White Bull and takes her away to the
island of Crete
• Greek gods frequently meddles into humans lives and interacted with them
contrary to Christian gods.
• Europa became the first queen of Crete.
Zeus and Leda, Zeus and Danae, Zeus and Ganymede
• Zeus had a child with Leda named Helen by turning into a swan and seducing her.
• Danae was locked up in a tower by her father to preserve her virginity.
• Ganymede was a young boy abducted by Zeus. Greek men did not limit their
sexual encounters to women.
• Families would give their younger boys (around 12 yrs old) to older men ( 20-30
yrs old) who would show them how to live in society and how to be men. That
• Greeks would have Hermes outsides of their houses that would ward off strangers
and that had a scripture on it. Allegoric representation; Greek went though a dark age which causes them to become an
illiterate society. They managed to write a script with the help of the more advanced
society Venecia and brought it into Crete. This is probably how the story of Europa came
about seeing how she was from the eastern end of the mediteranien sea Venecia where
• Zeus and Europa had a child named Minos who wanted to become ruler of
Crete so he bargains Poseidon to become ruler of Crete.
• Poseidon agreed as long as Minos gave Poseidon his best bull, hid prize bull.
• Minos becomes guilty of having too much pride and greed so he switched the
• Poseidon finds out and punishes him. He makes it to that Minos’ wife
[Pasiphae] falls in love with Minos’ prize bull; the bull that he loved so much,
enough to not respect the gods.
• Zooaphilia- love of an animal theoretically.
• Pasiphae consults Daedalus who was Minos’ chief engineer and creates a cow
costume so she can seduce the bull and have sex with the bull and they have a
child which was the Minotaur.
• One mans sin (Minos not respecting the Poseidon) can become another mans
sin (the spell on Pasiphae which led to the birth of the Minotaur). People who
were deformed were not acceptable.
• The Minotaur got trapped in a maze/labyrinth which was constructed by
Daedalus and his son Icarus.
CLAS 1000 13/01/2012
1. Establish the cultural and mythical context later periods of Greek history.
2. Identify the role of the Iliad in shaping the Greek character
3. Use mythological ‘history’ to bride the Greek and Roman world
• Homer wrote the Iliad but history is not sure whether or not Homer
actually existed and if he was just simply a figure. Homer was more of a
trend of writing.
The Homeric Question
• Who was he?
• Where did he live
• Method of recoding these poems
• What are they about
• AD 110, Byzantium
• Fragments of papyri • The legend of a blind poet
The Greeks believed that Homer was a real person. Homer shaped Greek culture. Plato
says that Homer educated the Greeks.
Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
• The Greek mind believed that women were the root of evil
• The ten year war the Trojan war was started because of a women
• Zeus was worried about one of his children taking his throne
• Zeus fell in love with a Nymph and he was going to marry her but he got a
prophecy that the child of Thetis will be grader this his father
• So Zeus would marry Thetis off too Peleus a peasant
• Eris doesn’t get invited to the wedding and she was goddesses of road rage
• She brought a golden apple to the wedding – kalliste (for the most beautiful)
• Hera ( wife of Zeus), Athena ( goddess of warfare) and Aphrodite (goddess of
• He makes Paris who is in exile determine which of the three goddesses are the
most beautiful and they all come down to earth and parade around.
• Hera offers political wisdom
• Athena offers him unbeatable on the battle field
• Aphrodite offers him the most beautiful women in the world – he chose Leda
• Helen was the daughter of Leda( who took form of the swan) and Zeus who was
• She was doomed to a life of misery and her beauty was her curse because she had
been abducted many times in her life.
• Helen of Sparta shot with one of cupids arrows and she fell in love with Paris
• Helen is the face that launched a 1000 ships
• Paris of Troy
• Menelaus king of Sparta
• Agamemnon - Menelaus brother and leader of the expedition
• Achilles is filled with grief when he finds out Patroclus is dead. He becomes
angry and enraged. It is only then where he goes back on the battlefield. He goes
• Patroclus was Achilles great companion and he disguises himself as Achilles with
his armour and everything and joins the war. He runs up against Hector and gets
• The book the Iliad picked up in the tenth war. It beings with an argument between
Agamemnon and Achilles. They are fighting over Briseis who belonged to
Achilles as a prize but Agamemnon wanted her so he took her. So Achilles didn’t want to fight anymore and without his help the Trojans started making ground and
winning while the Greeks were loosing. Hector was leading the Trojans to
• Ancient fear of the Greek man was not to be killed in battle but to not be buried
properly; so hector tells Achilles to honour his body. Achilles does no such thing
and in fact drags it around on his chariot.
• Achilles feels compassion and gives the body back and Achilles gets hit in his
• Beware of Greeks baring gift “Timeo Danaos et done ferentes” Laocoon said
leave the gift but they did no such thing.
• The greeks pretended to go away and they left the Trojans a big horse. The
Trojans brought the horse inside and out of the horse came the Greeks attacking
and defeating them.
• Priam Hectors father was killed by Neoptolemus.
• Cassandra put into sexual slavery Priams daughter.
• Astyanax (Hectors son) they through Trojan babies off the wall.
• Polyxena (Hectors sister) held over the grave of Achilles had her throat slit.
CLAS 1000 16/01/2012
• The Iliad talked about the destructive influence of the war and the Odyssey
addresses the return of an individual veteran from the 10 year war to his home.
• Picks up after the Trojan War with the King of Ithaca – Greeks won the war
because of him; he was intellectual and it was his idea to make the horse.
• People suspect it was a women’s hand behind the odyssey because the way it
spoke of women compared to the Ilias.
• Odysseus main goal was to return home to his wife Penelope he comes home by
the sea on a ship.
• Penelope cruz -> ship -> on a sea
• He had a son named Telemachus - Chus means far from the fight.
• The story begins at Odysseus’ home when he was for absent for 10 years and his
ambitious nobles tried to take over his thrones.
• Athena reveals intervening events to Telemachus to find his dad.
• Helen and Menelaus reconcile and Agamemnon is killed by Clytemnestra [his
wife] and Aegisthus their step father.
• Clytemnestra held a grudge against her husband for murdering their eldest
daughter as a sacrifice. They also killed Cassandra, Agamemnon’s war prize.
• Orestes and Electra [Agamemnons kids] take revenge against their mother and
their step father and kill them.
• Furies haunt Orestes and Electra because in Greek society, killing family is worse
then killing strangers. Odysseus and Calypso
• Out of the 10 years it took for Odysseus to get home, he got delayed because
he was trapped for 7 years on Calypsos island where she had her way him.
• Hermes facilitates his release who was a messenger of god.
• He builds a raft and sails home.
• Poseidon (God of Sea) send a raging wave/storm and destroys his raft.
Scheria and Nausikaa
• He washes up on the Island of Scheria where he meets princess Nasuikaa
• She finds him and takes him homes. – Important to Greeks, Nausikaa shows xenia
which is the concept of hospitality and it comes from Zeus.
• He gets thrown a party (sacrificed animals, fruits and such)
• Demodocus – entertainer, tells tales of the Torjan war with his lyre.
• He breaks down in tears and shares the tales of the war.
• Lotophagoi – lotus eater (drug addict)
• Spartans who were reserves showed slaves drunk to show young Spartan boys
that drinking is bad.
• Odysseus and his men explore and find a cave ( metaphor – igonorance and
knowledge) they find water and food. Because of xenia they believe that they
should help themselves because it’s a sign from Zeus.
• Polyphemos ( the one eyed giant) sees them and blacks them in and he gets mad.
• They plan to defeat him but Odysseus says his cannont kill Polyphemos because
if they do, they could not move the bolder and they would be stuck in the cave
• Odysseus gives wine to Polyphemos and he gets drunk.
• He asks Odysseus what’s his name and he says nobody.
• They put a stick into his eye and blind him. He began to scream and such,
Polyphemos’ brothers come running into the cave to see what’s wrong but he tells
them nobody’s hurting him.
• Polyphemos was a Sheppard so they managed to leave the cave by holding onto
the bottom of the sheep’s so Polyphemos could not fill them in the morning when
he let them out of the cave.
• Was the God of wind and he gave Odysseus a bag full of wind that ended up
blowing him of course because his men opened the bag while he was sleeping.
That curiosity showed the deviant and mischievous nature of man.
Circe, the Sirens, Scylla and Charybdis • Provocative witch
• She gave Odysseus and the man food and drinks that turned them into pigs ( to
show that men were sexual pigs when man drink too much)
• The Sirens were bird like creatures who sung beautifully and seduced, lured and
serenaded men on ships with their voice’s to make them crash so they could eat
• Odysseus wanted to be the only one to hear it so he makes his men tie him to the
• Scylla was a seven headed dragon and Charybdis was a whirlpool. Odysseus
sacrifices some of his men to be eaten by Scylla in order to save the ship from the
whirlpool. He would save more men by doing that. Hence between a rock and a
CLAS 1000 20/01/2012
Lacadaemon (Zeus Son)/ Sparata
• God came to earth one time according to Christian beliefs and he had only
ONE son. Where as in Greek, every region could relate to Zeus because he
was busy having babies in every region.
• Spartans were ancient worlds greatest warriors.
• Inverted V on their shields. IS the Greek capital letter for Lamda which is
• Lenoadas- he was a king but not a monarch because they were ruled by two
• They had a very small number of troops.
• They had a unique structure to their society.
• The Spartans were known for deep impact sentences.
• The Dorians saw themselves as ethnically distinct.
• The Dorians were the people who displaced and invaded the original people of
Sparta the Mycenaeans.
• Descendants of Hercules
• The arriving of the Dorians put an end to the age of heroes in Sparta such as
Menelaus and Helen and such… Helen and Paris were mythical Spartans
• He created the document that instructed Spartans how to live.
• They wore a red cloth.
• The document he was credited with creating for the Spartans was the Great
Rhetra. Great Rhetra
• Apollo of Delphi was one of the Gods that had view of the future. They would go
there to talk to the Oracle.
• The Oracle sat above a reserve of ethanol/ gas so she was “high” out of her mind
• They would go there to seek advice on infertility or opening a new business.
• Crosus – king of Ledya wanted to make war on his neighbours. He went to the
Oracle of Apollo and if you make war on your neighbour an empire will fall.
When he went to battle and was captured by they his enemies he realized the great
empire that would fall would be his.
• Method of producing warriors. Superior warriors. Part of the Rhetra. Spartans
would mould children into efficient soldiers.
• Teach them to never give up. They were taught to kill and they were constantly
• Spartans mothers would not resist their children being sent of to the Agoge.
Spartan women were notorious for implementing these harsh Spartan rules. They
humiliated their children if they did not fit the true “warrior” persona.
• Form of secret police.
• They would use fear, violence to enforce state laws.
QUIZ - Friday 27/01/2012 consist of short answers, multiple choice
Darius and Xerxes (kings)
• Homer; Iliad, Odyssey
• Hesiod; Theogony; works and days
• Ionian Philosophers and Hecateur of Miletus – took all the works of myth and
tried to find what really happened, the real story
• Logographers/logographoi – people who wrote about truth, historians
• Herodotus coined the word history, 1 historian in western tradition – developed
that if you want to write about things that happened you should ask people who
were there, write about events close to your lifetime, Thucydides, Xenophon:
• Arrian, Polybius, Plutarch: Hellenistic historians Ionia
• Settled by the people of Attica
• Greek experience great development and scientific discovery
• Hecatues of Miletus wants to write real history
• Herodotus ca. 484-430 (413) BC takes on Hecatues challenge of writing real
Mythos vs Historia
• Research- questioned Athenians and such
• G.M. Trevelyan “the historian needs better boots than better books” – go first
hand and look at something
• Tyre, Egypt, Scythia, Samos, Athens, Babylon? Travelled extensively
• Fehling discredits Herodotus’ claim
• Autopsy – self examination, history is better understood when it is self examined
• Barbaroi – everyone else referred to as barbarians who were not in the two
• Greeks felt superior and were racist against other cultures and felt that everyone’s
language was barbaric
• Didactic (history that is instructed, Herodotus feels that he needs to tweak certain
facts to prove something and to show what happened – by him doing that then it is
not so much lying) vs chronologically precise: Solon( one of the 7 wise men –
delivered the Greeks their constitution and Croesus – they never met in real life
but they represent the mixing of their cultures
• Croesus ask Solon who is the wealthiest in the world
• Cleobis and Biton say they are the happiest and wealthies people on earth – two
death Athenians are wealthiest. Young Athenians boys, devoted to their mothers,
worked hard, strong, beautiful, noble one day their mom wanted to go to their
religious festival but the mule was sick so couldn’t pull the cart. So their sons
strap the cart to them and they pull her to the festival. The mom prays to the gods
that they will get the best reward so they die in their sleep.
• Locals used large ants to mind for gold according to Herodotus
• No one believed Herodotus and thought he was making up
• It shouldn’t read ant thought it should mean rodent
• In the are where he describes – local boys would shot these animals and if you
rake them you can see gold dust (recently)
• Camel spiders in that same region
Persian war • Achaemenid Empire of Persia and city-states of the Hellenic world
• 499-450 BC.
• Cyrus the Great conquered Ionia in 547 BC.
• Extension of the Persian Empire to its natural shape – first time Greeks and
• Greeks and a great intellectual and scientific break through in Ionia
• Conquering Ionia mirrored Achilles in the Iliad – they simply just wanted the
title but Greeks felt threatened no one steps up on the Greeks
• Grandson of Astyages Median King, oracular warning – ask about his
personal and family future. He had a dream ( dreams meant something,
powerful) his dream was that his daughter urinated so much that his kingdom
flooded – the oracle your daughter will issue something from her that will
destroy your kingdom, they took it as her unborn child Cyrus
• Harpagus kings noble, Astyages says take the baby and kill it. But insteasd, he
gives the baby to a herdsman who planned on going into the woods and let it
be eaten by the wolves but instead he takes it home and raises the baby an tells
everyone that he killed it.
• Cyrus turns into a noble and glorious man. He ends up meeting his
grandfather and his welcomed by into the kingdom. But Greek believes that
you are ruler because of God. God chose you.
• Astyages’ revenge any small threat or disobedience to the Kings power must
be punished so he must punish Harpagus for not killing the baby. He invites
him to a feast and makes him eat the flesh of his son.
• Resumes rightful position and conquers Lydia
• Contact with the Greeks
• Conquers (Cyprus) Ionia 547BC. And installs tryants in antiquity were people
who ruled with no constitution (doesn’t necessarily mean a bad person)
• Cyrus rules taxes them but there is no problem until the Greeks come along
• 499 BC Ionian Revolt
• Aristagoras (Greek working for the Persians) asked to be sent money and troops
to take over the island of Naxos to expand the Persian Empire but he fails and he
knew he was going to be in big trouble , Naxos, Histaeus and tattooed heads
• He stirred up the Greeks of Ionia in revolt to protect himself
• They would use slaves head to tattoo the messages.
• The Persians - Sardis burned, Athens
• 499 – 493 BC Ionian Revolt
• Sardis burned Athens
• Darius the Great (Persian) • 493 BC revolt suppressed, but revenge!
• First invasion 492 Bc, Mardonius – SUNK
• He needs to punish the Athenian