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CIS1000 Chapter 7 Summary.doc

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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1000

CIS*1000 Chapter Summaries – Chapter 7: Networking 1) What is a computer network? • Two or more computers connected by software and hardware that communicate with each other. • Each device connected to a network is referred to as a node. A node can take the form of: o A computer o A peripheral (such as a printer) o A game console, etc. 2) What benefits are there to networking computers? • Networks facilitate resource sharing, This means that computers on the same network can often share: o An internet connection o Peripherals (like a shared home printer) o Files (through public folders) • Additionally, networks allow computers on the same network running different operating systems (Windows vs. OS X) to communicate. 3) What disadvantages are there to having computers networked? • Cost (creating a network involves acquiring additional equipment) • Network Administration - networks require maintenance in the form of administration. Administration entails o Installing new devices on the network o Checking to make sure the network is running properly o Updating software on the network o Configuring network security 4) Network Architecture – how a network is designed. Can be classified by a number of different characteristics: • Through network administration: o Networks can be administered locally or centrally:  Local administration means each node in a network is taken care of separately. • A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a good example of a locally administered network. Each node on this type of network communicates with any other node on the network as an equal (or peer).  Central administration (client/server networks) – computers on a network are used to perform certain tasks (these computers are the clients) and are managed centrally by another computer called a server. Clients communicate with the server to perform network functions such as printing.  Client/server networks are better for managing a large number of computers (like in a large office), but P2P networks are more easily configured and better for use at home. • A home network server is used to store and share media and back up files on the network it is connected to. This type of server can be installed on a P2P network without changing the network’s architecture. • Through distance: o LAN or Local Area Network – all nodes on this type of network are located within a small geographic area. An example is a network in a school computer lab.  A HAN is a LAN located in the home, or a Home Area Network o LANs can be connected over long distances to form a WAN or Wide Area Network. This allows separate LANs to communicate.  Wireless networks spanning large areas are technically WANs, but are usually referred to as a Metropolitan Area Network or MAN if they are serving a city in particular. 5) Network Components • All networks require: o 1) A means of connecting nodes on the network  All network nodes are connected to each other and the network through transmission media – these establish communications between nodes and can be wireless or wired • Wireless networks utilize radio waves to communicate • Wired networks utilize cables or wires to communicate. These include twisted- pair cables (similar to those found in normal telephone cables), coaxial cables (found in cable TV connections) and fiber-optic cables (made of plastic or glass, transmit data very quickly; not often seen within a home) o Wired vs. wireless: the type of transmission media chosen is dependent on user requirements. Different types transmit data at different speeds.  Data transfer rate (bandwidth): the maximum speed data can be transmitted from one node to another  Throughput: the actual speed of data transmission, always less than or equal to data transfer rate. o 2) Devices that allow for communication and data transmission  Network adapters – devices within or connected to network nodes that allow these nodes to connect with each other and communicate over a network. • All computers sold today (and many peripherals) contain a type of network adapter referred to as a network interface card (NIC). Many NICs are configured to work wirelessly but many can use wired media as well. o Wireless vs. wired connections: Wired connections sometimes
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