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University of Guelph
ENGL 3020
Andrew Bretz

Sept 19 2012 ENGL 3020 Chiasmus and Richard II Chiasmus:  a placing crosswise  I wasted time and now doth time waste me o I – subject 1 o wasted – verb o time- object 1 o time -subject (object 1) o waste- verb o me – object (subject 1)  shift in tense  rhetorical trope throughout play  chiastically**  play is built on the model of chiasmus  Hazlitt  chiasmus – act 4 o giving up the crown o didn’t fit into the model of chiasmus o makes sense that it doesn’t fit in, because it was put in after the play was published o later insertion of the play that messes up the chiastic structure  chiasmus vs antithesis o “think not the king did banish thee, but thou the king” o “crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them”- francis bacon  differentiation, different kinds of men o antithesis  allows differentiation  different nouns reps different subjects in parallel sequences  no shifting of the noun  “men are from mars, woman are from venus”  trying to distinguish, see the difference o Edward lost for love, Richard lost for words, bolingbroke lost his soul, but harry gains france o “so tired of being sick, so sick of being tired”  chiastic structure philosophy of language  condensate figures of speech (metaphor) o x is y  distinguishing figures of speech (metonymy) o x has unique identity to y  chiasmus – interchangeability of two terms  grammatically they are structurally similar  condensate or distinguishing?  one subject is related to the other, the object is related to the subject  there are lots of relationship of identity that are chiastic  “I am a brother to my brother, and he is a brother to me”  bilateral relationship NOT CHIASMUS o mutuality  “they are cousins to each other”  kings and subjects are not in a bilateral relationship  figuratively – king and earl in relationship o Edward ii – raises gaveston to make him lord of man, really making him lord of himself o king cant have a lord o he is the top of the system o bizarre relationship wasting time  what are you doing when you are wasting time? o avoiding something!  rendering yourself impotent  refusing to act in a way that makes sense in the world  if time wastes you  it is laying waste to you o destroying you  you waste time – incapable of action  time waste you – you are incapable of action b/c you are dead etc  similar but different (in results)  relationship that is asymmetrical  can you create a chiasmus kingship? o occurs in Richard ii chiastic structure  act one o riachard as tyrant o henry banished  act three o Richard as impotent o back from Ireland o henry triumphant  act four o not part of original play o on stage giving up crown o doesn’t have to do it symbolically did in act three  act five o Richard as isolated o desolation o henry as “tyrant” gages  read in subtext  serious scene  highly ceremonial  gage- the gloves (fancy ones)  no one wore gauntlet – when throwing down a gage throwing down glove old traitors, youn
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