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University of Guelph
Environmental Design and Rural Development
EDRD 4010
Dan Yarmey

Chapter 6 – The Normative View of Tourism Planning The Planning Framework - Tourism planning has suffered from two fundamental inadequacies; the first is the lack of theoretical literature specific to tourism development, there is little literature which explains and predicts how tourism behaviour is altered under various conditions - Secondly, there is a general lack of implementation theory that can be deployed within tourism planning - Method and technique are critical to tourism development, as they are to other areas of planning. These types of theory provide a technical framework for what is largely a process of community negotiation – dependent on a community’s organization and political will. - Figure 6.1 outlines a classical approach to planning, which emphasizes a number of features; the creation of a vision to establish an overall framework for tourism development; the setting of goals and objectives to bring that vision about; the development of programs designed to accomplish the relevant objectives; an evaluation of the feasibility – usually financial – of the implementation and ongoing monitoring of the project established as a result of the planning and decision-making process - This process is not much different from those found in the social reform and policy analysis planning strategies outlined in ch.5 - What are different is the data gathering and analysis procedures which provide information on which this process depends for making critical decisions about the tourism system and its relation to the community and environment - Also who controls the process is different - Figure 6.1 suggests that two types of research are required in order to support the planning process, first are the positivistic research activities involving the collection and analysis of quantified data, these activities are found in more traditional, top-down approaches to planning. Second are the interpretive and collectivist approaches to data collection - These focus on the needs and aspirations of those who will be most affected by the tourism plan and development - Both qualitative and quantitative data are useful to the planning process however, the empirical, quantitative data are often overly relied upon by decision-makers to influence the goals and objectives Individual and Community Needs Assessment - Tourism development rests on the fundamental principles of individual and community satisfaction - In order to accomplish these goals, individual and community needs must be identified and expressed in both the plan and the resulting tourism project - The greatest single difficulty in implementing actions is not the lack of tools available, but the absence of necessary capabilities and leadership in the community to implement them - It is required at the community level on a continuous basis - Many community citizens have become cynical about community planning processes which have been instituted in the past - People also think that communities are organized enough to undertake such activities however it is usually only a small elite group - The community self-assessment instrument outlined in figure 6.1 is a powerful tool for gauging the public’s attitude towards the influx of visitors, and other impacts of tourism - This has been tested among many communities and they reacted favorably - Members also enjoy hearing perspectives of other members, this allows them to gain a wider interest in the history of the community, and deeper respect for the aspirations of fellow participants - Figure 6.2 the Critical Path Format Economic, Social, and Environmental Research - It is important for the tourism planner to have an overall concept of what is contained in each of the categories listed, and the ability to explain their significance to other participants in the process - The results of research are not to drive the plan but to simply provide information to those deliberating on the categories (Figure 6.1) Economic Analysis - Fundamental to this analysis on which tourism rests is the analysis of supply and demand - Both entrepreneurs and public officials, investing either their own or the public’s money, need to know the level of demand for the activity their project is directed towards - The location quotient, which measures the locality’s economic diversification against the economic structure of the region/country or province – referred to as the reference group - This gives the researcher an idea in what economic sectors the community is over- or under-weighted in comparison to their reference group. - In most cases, employment within a given sector is the variable examined in the location quotient equation - The location quotient expresses the relative specialization and concentration of labor in specific sectors of the local economy - Employment in tourism is measured against total employment at the regional or national level - The location quotient is a ratio that compares a particular economic activity’s share of the local economy with the same activity’s share of the national or regional economy The equation is: (sec. emp/tot emp) / (ref sect emp/ref tot emp) where: sect emp = local economy sectoral employment tot emp= total employment in the local economy ref sect emp= reference economy sectoral employment ref tot emp= total employment in the reference economy - A location quotient greater than one indicate comparative specialization, meaning an area is more specialized than the reference economy in that particular sector - A location quotient of less than one, conversely, means that the community’s tourism sector is less specialized than the reference sectors - If the location quotient of the area is equal to one, then that economy’s share of the tourism sector would be equal to the reference or perhaps national economy - One location quotients have been calculated and compared, researchers can then examine how this profile would be likely to change with the introduction of a proposed tourism project - This information can be used for future investments by the government and entrepreneurs - Governments may also want to stimulate already strong regions further, or to help less-developed regions to catch up - Businesses may want to invest their energies in areas which have already demonstrated strength in the tourism sector or carve out a new niche for themselves where one doesn’t exist - Location quotients help planners sort out these issues - Demand is often generated in the tourism industry by some geological feature of a region - Many communities exploit such features like a lake, forest, or mountain by constructing facilities to take advantage of those unique features - Profiling such demand helps planners with their proposals for tourism - The most relevant to an understanding of the economic significance of a particular development are the issues of economic valuation and impact - There are three methods of valuation available to the planner of recreation
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