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Lecture 3

EES Notes Lecture 3.docx

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Environmental Sciences
Course Code
ENVS 1050

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Lecture 3Water Liquid Natural CapitolWater is in the air and in our body 60 of our bodyEarth is a water planet and is 71 percent of it is covered with waterHowever this water is mostly salt water and this limits its usages and more expensive to use the limited fresh waterTo convert salt water to drinking water is expensive corrosive and difficult to doNo species can exist without waterWater changes the surfaces of the Earth eg hill valley canyons due to erosion of the soil rain weatheringWater moderates climatesIt is also used to remove and dilute wastes and pollutantsHuman usage withdrawaltotal amount of water removed from a river lake or aquifer for any purposeSome of this water can be returned to its source o Water cycle is one of the most important cycles on the Earth and reuses and renews water the supply on Earth o Humans use 54 of the worlds reliable runoff surface water In 2025 humans would have consumed 7090 of available surface water o Raises two questions 1 how much water is available and 2 what is the quality of available reliable waterGlobally there is a very low amount of fresh water available 26 of all available water is fresh water and only 014 is readily accessible waterSome areas of the planet lack a good amount of water less than 1700 cubic metersyearperson eg USA Africa and lower Asia Under water stressCanada has 20 of all freshwater in the world o Some Worlds ProblemsSome areas have a lot of water but the largest rivers are far from agricultural and population centres It is very expensive to transport to where it is neededLot of precipitation arrives during short periods which cannot and stored because it is very expensiveLakes and rivers are shrinking due to climate change o How do we use our water64 of available water is used for industrial purposes such as power plant coolingA lot of water is being used in the agricultural centers of the USA not so much in Canada In China most of the water is used for agriculture purposes 8785 of water available is consumed and not returned to its water basin sourceIn Canada one household would use for showering 35 and flushing the toiletMajority of world lives in hydrological poverty 1 of 6 people doesnt have access to clean waterPoor quality water can lead to diarrhea and kills 2 million children annually
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