ENVS 4012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Tap Water, Disinfectant, Calcium Sulfate

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Environmental Sciences
Course
ENVS 4012
Professor
01/23/2008
Human Health and the Environment
Lecture 3: Waterborne Hazards and Human Health
Announcements
There have been numerous questions regarding the dates for the midterm and final
exam. These dates have yet to be finalized by the registrar’s office. The professor
has requested that we have the gym for one room to write in. If this is the case, the
midterm examination will take place the week after the reading week. This is just
preliminary information as we do not know a day or time. As soon as the date for
the midterm is finalized it will be posted on the intranet. The video for lecture one
will be posted tomorrow for us to watch. Remember late submissions of
assignments will not be accepted period.
Assignment 1
Read through the assignment carefully in detail. Ask the TA questions. Give your
idea and ask if it is correct. You can ask basically anything you want. After that, if
you still do not know what to do, you are not clear, you want to learn more,
professor is available from 4PM to 6PM to answer questions regarding the
assignment. Go to TA first for the TA is fully responsible for the assignments. The
assignment is to be done single-spaced. Question 3 is a maximum of two pages
including the references. It could be shorter than two pages. The major idea is
important. Find scientific papers published in scientific journals to support your
opinion or get more information regarding the question. You can use other books
and internet resources to elaborate if you like. Make sure you are getting reliable
information from the web. Try to be original and do not be repetitive.
Question 1: Discuss environmental risks to your health. Explain: this is the risk; I
have that risk that will affect my health, what will happen to me, are you going to
potentially experience some lung damage or is it cancerous – say why and how you
know that. Did you learn that in lecture, read it in a book, is it from the internet,
how do you know that risk is associated with that health affect. Make sure that you
explain. What type of risks or hazards? The hazards include chemical, physical,
social, biological, cultural or environmental hazards. Is this a season of flu? Do you
take TTC, drink tap water, smoke, drink, and/or drive a car (indoor environment) –
many different risks. Do you eat breakfast, does your roommate smoke. Can we
have an overlapping of the risks? It could be but try not to do it because if you have
idea for five you do not have to repeat it.
Question 2: An explanation is needed. If you start right away you can get help from
TA.
Liquid natural capitol
Water generally is a liquid capitol, natural capitol
Why is it natural? Water is available everywhere in nature, we are surrounded by
water
Even our body is mostly consisted of water
Earth is a water planet – 71% of our surface is covered with water
Not all of this water is available for us for our consumption
Why? Mostly salty water – we are surrounded by huge oceans and huge seas
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01/23/2008
Not much fresh water that we can use for human consumption and animal
consumption
Why is water so important? No living species (animals, plants, or humans) can
survive and live without water
We always think about drinking though water is not just for drinking
Everything in household from cleaning to cooking, industrial purposes,
agriculture (for watering plants and crops)
There is a science called geomorphology that discusses sculpting the Earth’s
surface
Water is one of the factors that changes the shape of planet Earth – this is called
water erosion
One of the types of soil erosion is water soil erosion - changes, moving of the
soil by water – water streams, surface runoff
Moderating climate – In coastal areas less extremes mild winter, hot summers
( but not that hot)
Water is a universal solvent – dissolves in many different chemicals, same is the
thing in nature dissolved in rocks
In the long run, Water is doing a great job moving and dissolving the particles
Water is involved in dissolving and diluting particles –
Can be good but can also be something that we might not want
Water also dilutes wastes and pollutants – what happens is move water together
with water stream/flow and reach rivers, lakes, ponds, oceans
How much fresh water is available?
Not much fresh water is available on Earth
97.4% of all water is found in oceans and saline lakes
2.6% in fresh water is available
Of the 2.6% in fresh water most of it is captured as ice caps and glaciers
(1.984%)
Water from ice caps and glaciers is not readily available (might be if global
warming continues)
Groundwater composes of a significant amount of the fresh water
Groundwater is available for us but we need to pump it out to use it and
consume it and also not use it more than it is replenished
There is only 0.014% of readily available fresh water
Of this, 0.007% is found in lakes, 0.005% as soil moisture, some significant
amount of water is in atmosphere as water vapor and some as biota (all living
organisms)
There are huge amounts of water stored in leaves and vegetation (biota)
And some amount of water in rivers
How do we use the world’s fresh water?
There is a comparison between three countries – Canada, U.S. and China (on
slide)
There is a significant difference in the use of fresh water between these three
countries
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01/23/2008
We are most interested in Canada – 64% of the fresh water is used for power
plant cooling, 15% in industry, 12% in public and 9% in agriculture
If you look at the graph of the U.S. much more water is used in the agricultural
sector (41%)
United States uses much more water for irrigation in agriculture; China uses
even much more (61%)
More specifically how do we use water in households? Too much water is used
for conventional use – flushing toilet (30%), showering (35%), laundry (20%),
drinking 10% and cleaning (5%)
Hydrological poverty
Canada has plentiful water available but what about the people in some areas of
the world
People in many developing countries just don’t have enough water for basic
things such as drinking or cooking
One out of six people do not have regular access to clean water (safe water to
drink)
In many areas such as North Africa and Western Asia people travel far distances
to just get a couple of litres of water (they spend half of the day doing it)
They need to do it just to survive (often use polluted water because that is all
they can find)
As a result of this diarrheal deaths is very common in developing countries
It is the number one cause of death in children younger than five years old
The biggest risk – 2 million kids die every day (year?) due to diarrheal death
Adults are also under high risk but definitely children are at a huge risk (under 5)
They are dying presently
Water and Your health
We are in desperate need for help – drinking water and swimming water
Drinking Water
It is our right to know what it is that we drink – what other chemicals (besides
molecules of water) that we have in a glass of water that we consume today
Our municipals must provide us with record – they are checking our tap water
everyday
Provide us with annual reports on local drinking water quality
It is our right to contact them and get that information
On water bottles it says naturally pure water – water cannot be 100% pure
because water naturally has to have some minerals that’s good for our heath
We need calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and salts Also calcium
carbonate, calcium sulfate
There is no such thing as naturally pure water
Actually there is Distillate water is water without salts – our body needs salts
Our tap water comes from Lake Ontario, far from the shore and deeper on the
bottom an example of surface water
Surface water – in most urban areas mostly from rivers, lakes and reservoirs
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Document Summary

There have been numerous questions regarding the dates for the midterm and final exam. These dates have yet to be finalized by the registrar"s office. The professor has requested that we have the gym for one room to write in. If this is the case, the midterm examination will take place the week after the reading week. This is just preliminary information as we do not know a day or time. As soon as the date for the midterm is finalized it will be posted on the intranet. The video for lecture one will be posted tomorrow for us to watch. Remember late submissions of assignments will not be accepted period. Give your idea and ask if it is correct. After that, if you still do not know what to do, you are not clear, you want to learn more, professor is available from 4pm to 6pm to answer questions regarding the assignment.

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