Class Notes (835,430)
Canada (509,186)
EURO 2300 (2)

EURO2300 - lectures.docx

40 Pages
Unlock Document

European Studies
EURO 2300
Brian Mc Dougall

EURO 2300 – European Culture 1/7/2013 8:54:00 AM Europe after the First World War (i) Overview of the impact and legacy of the Great War: casualties; territorial changes; economic and social impact (ii) Politics:  Post-war peace treaties, 1919-20 (esp. the Treaty of Versailles) o Very few areas in Europe that weren‟t impacted by WWI o WWI led to more than 9 million deaths  Excludes civilian casualties o Generation of man was cut down in the battlefields o Many of the men who did arrive home were permanently disabled, either physically or mentally  Society at this time was ill-equipped to deal with these types of disabilities o Shortage of young men, birth rate declined and due to the disabilities there were a surplus of expenses for the governments to deal with  Overview of post-war European politics: the troubled realities behind Europe‟s new liberal and democratic order o New states have very fragile democratic roots o Economic impacts: the war was outrageously expensive, it marks the turning point of the “reduction of Europe” o High levels of unemployment, high levels of inflation o Germany is the most obvious example of this reduction – at one point the German marcs were absolutely worthless resulting in extreme inflation o Crucial factor: inflation had its strongest impact on those who had savings during the war – the middle classes were typically the ones with savings and they are the ones who were essentially the “backbone” to the fascist movements within Europe o Huge refugee movements after WWI due to the boundary changes with the massive loss of territories o Half a million war widows – all who were entitled to pensions form the state  Women have entered the workforce within the first world war and after the war there is a movement to put men back into the workforce and attempts to push women out  Political Treaties and The Treaty of Versailles o Key factor in shaping the post war Europe were the numerous political treaties which drew up post war boundaries as well as economic and political penalties to the defeated nations o June 1919 – under the terms, Germany along with its allies are forced to accept responsibility for the outbreak of the war (article 231: War Guilt Clause)  Due to this clause, Germany was forced to pay damages to the countries it had invaded  If the treaty had lasted past 1933 the Germans would have been paying back damages into the 1980‟s o In terms of territories, Germany loses quite a bit on both the eastern and western fronts, lost all of its colonial empire and the treaty forbade any unions between Germany and Austria o At this time you have millions of Germans living outside the borders of Germany, became a major point of Hitler‟s Nazi/Nationalist appeal o Germany was forced to disband its military, navy and air force completely and the army was capped on the number of men it could have  Marshal Foch on the Treaty of Versailles: „This is not peace; it is an Armistice for twenty years‟ o Germany perceived that it had been treated very harshly, a lot of countries agreed o This period marks the creation of the League of Nations as well – on paper Europe looks likes its moving in the right direction o The British Empire had never been bigger than it was in 1919 – many people (the elites and the masses) felt that the democracy had been imposed on them form the outside o Very difficult socio-economic status of post-war Europe, democracy was already on shaky grounds  Democracy‟s reputation suffered because of this (iii) Culture:  Roots of cultural innovation in the pre-1914 period: Freud, Expressionism, Futurism  The cultural impact of the First World War: Dada o Deliberately provocative – drew beards on the Mona Lisa o Challenging the order of conventions o Realism emerged o In Russia the popularity grew around the Bolshevik group which in its beginning had a very liberal view towards the arts and culture  The post-war avant-garde: emergence of Surrealism (iv) Useful names and terms  „War guilt clause‟ (Article 231)  Alsace-Lorraine  Danzig  Pablo Picasso  Franz Kafka  Edvard Munch, The Scream (1893)  Friedrich Nietzsche  Marcel Duchamp  Bolshevik Revolution  Vladimir Mayakovsky  André Breton  Salvador Dalí  Mayakovsky (1918): „It‟s time for bullets to pepper museums‟.  Breton‟s definition of Surrealism: „The future resolution of [the] two states, dream and reality, which are apparently so contradictory, into an absolute reality: a surreality so to speak‟. The Rise of Fascism in Inter-War Europe: Italy and Germany January 7 , 2013 Introduction  Inter-war Europe: the rapid transition from democracy to dictatorship  Looks as though Europe is headed in the right direction on paper, as we fast forward 20 years later into the late 30‟s we see that this is not true  In most of these countries parliament has been dissolved or suspended, one man rule (monarch, civilian, army officer), dictatorial is strongly anti- communist and fervently nationalist  Magic word to group these regimes was fascists  Mussolini‟s Italy and Hitler‟s Germany (i) Defining Fascism  Marxist definition  Right wing dictatorships as fascist  Communist definition was quite simple, fascism was basically extreme and aggressive nasty form of capitalism  The difficulties in defining a generic „fascist‟ model  Marxism had an obvious theoretical basis, the writings of Marx, Engels and later Lenin  Fascism didn‟t really have any major theoretical/ideological basis  Term itself came from a Latin term that basically meant a bundle of sticks?  Hitler regime never referred to itself as fascist, rather national socialists  Italy – fascism was founded in Italy in the 1920‟s due to Benito Mussolini  PNF came to power in 1922, established dictatorship  Other institutions still remained quite important o ie: monarchy, catholic church  Germany – most radical “fascist” states  Nazi founded in 1920 in Munich, comes to power in 1933  Crucial difference: based upon the idea of race  Nazi: anti-Semitism, race played are far smaller role in fascist Italy and later in Spain  Franco is much more of a conservative nationalist more than fascism, regime was based on the core of Spanish society o ie: church, army officers, etc. (ii) Rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany  Post-War Peace Settlements  Germany‟s dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles  Plays a massive role to the rise of power of the Nazi party – prime objective was to overturn the Treaty of Versailles  Italy was on the winning side after WWI – the officials from Italy returned from peace talks unhappy  Italy didn‟t gain much in territory from its efforts during the war  Some of its territories was given to one of the new post-war states, Yugoslavia  Violence and the “Red Threat”  Red menace – frightens the middle class, churches, industrialists, etc.  Fascists and Nazi violence were turned against communists, most groups were prepared to turn a blind eye  Crises of Democracy  Shaky foundation for democracy, parliament was regarded widely as ineffective and weak  Two socialists groups in Italy and Germany offered national pride, strong economy‟s and good foreign policy  „Seizing‟ Power in 1922/1933 Respectively: Myth and Reality  Wall street crash in 1929, leaves Germany and much of the world into an economic depression  There was no seizure of power, both Mussolini and Hitler were invited into power and to lead their respective countries  Both countries‟ political elite underestimated Hitler and Mussolini‟s abilities and political/social strength (iii) Fascism in Power in Italy and Germany: a Brief Overview  Foreign Policy: aggression and expansion during the 30‟s; the „Axis‟ partnership during WWII  Focused on making Italy/Germany great again, led to a strong expansion in foreign policy  Germany‟s overturning of the terms of Treaty of Versailles, 1935-39  Mussolini‟s case, modern version of the Roman Empire, Nazi‟s more concerned with the middle ages (always has a racial element)  Nazi‟s wanted to create living space for all Germans – built within Eastern Europe – belonged to Jews and Slav‟s and taking territory from them was the German duty  Both sanctioned intervention within the Spanish civil war on the side of Franco  By the late 1930‟s, Mussolini‟s regime is very much in Hitler‟s shadow  While the German army was laying waste to much of Europe in the late 1930‟s, Mussolini sat back and joined the war in June of 1940  Domestic Policy – similarities: shared values; cult of leadership; use of terror and repression  Awareness of importance of self-presentation, theatrical aspects of politics, getting political messages across, state oppression and surveillance to support their ideals  Domestic policy – differences: greater violence of Nazi rule; Church-state relations; stronger, more extensive hold on power of Hitler and the NSDAP; anti-Semitism  Things were taken to a greater extreme in Germany  Chemical warfare in Italy‟s attempt to expand into Africa, mass executions  Nazi first concentration camp opened in Dachau, in public, no secret  Henrich Himmler is at the center of the police empire; SS, casts shadow of oppression and terror across German society  Used this against racial enemies, political enemies; extraordinary violence in elimination policies „The Final Solution‟ – to liquidate Europe of its Jewish population  Both groups were prepared to make alliances with others in fear of communism, the church  Concessions much more prominent in Germany, Italy was the home of the papacy and had to take into account the Catholic Church  Hitler was much less inclined to adopt a tolerant attitude towards religion in Germany – by 1936-37 the regime is attacking the Catholic church and imprisoning some protestants  Nazi party a lot strong than the PNF, has a stronger grasp over its society and nation  There were anti-Semitic laws within Italy but they were more of an expression of alliance to its fascist ally in Germany (iv) Fascist and Nazi Attitudes Towards Culture Fascist Italy: rapid retreat from Futurism; cultural conservatism; limited room for maneuver for artists and intellectuals Mussolini‟s cultural policies were much more conservative than his futuristic colleagues; didn‟t agree that the best thing to do with Venice was to burn it to the ground or let it sink Some room for maneuver, Mussolini much more tolerant Modernist literature was removed from public life, book burning ceremonies; modernist art was head up for ridicule (v) Useful Names and Terms Fasces („bundle‟ or „union‟) PNF (Italian Fascist Party) NSDAP (National Socialist – Nazi – Party) Il Duce (Mussolini) Falange Francisco Franco Der Führer (Hitler) „Mutilated Peace‟ (Fiume) Squadristi (black shirts) SA („stormtroopers‟) Wall Street Crash (1929) Victor Emmanuel III March on Rome (Oct 1922) President Hindenburg Lebensraum („living space‟ Untermenschen („sub-humans‟) EURO 2300 – European Culture 1/7/2013 8:54:00 AM Ignazio Silone, Fontamara (i) Overview of life and works  1900 Born Secondino Tranquilli in Pescina, Abruzzi  1915 Earthquake kills his mother and two of his brothers  1921 Founder member of Italian Communist Party (PCI)  1924 Begins working as an informant for fascist secret police  1927 Travels to the Soviet Union  1930 Breaks off work as an informant; leaves Italy for exile in Switzerland  1931 Expelled from the PCI  1933 Fontamara is published  1937 Bread and Wine is published  1941 The Seed Beneath the Snow is published  1944 Returns to Italy and becomes active in the Democratic Socialist Party  1950 Retires from politics to devote himself to writing  1978 Dies in Geneva  Founding member of the communist part in the 1920‟s o Begins to retreat from the communist movement and is eventually expelled from the group in 1931 o Evidence has emerged that Silone worked as an informant for the fascist secret police; related to the fact that his brother was arrested on terrorist charges in possible attempt to lessen his charges or get him released  Silone on his break with politics in 1930 and his retreat into writing: “I must abandon militant politics completely… It was impossible for me to live such a troubled existence… I will rid my life of all falsehood, deceit and secrecy … [and] I will begin a new life… to seek redemption, to help the workers, the peasants (to whom I am bound with every fibre in my body), and my country” (ii) Rural Italy under fascist rule  Historical „North-South divide‟ in Italy o When Mussolini comes to power he promises to be a voice for the peasants; promises them land and wheat o Mussolini wanted something called avtarky in which in the case that the country goes to war there would be a guarantee supply of food and essentials  The PNF‟s public support for rural Italy („land to the peasants‟)  The detrimental impact of fascist agricultural policies on the south: the Battle for Wheat (1925) and land reclamation (iii) Fontamara  Brief overview of the early part of the novel: o Fontamara is a poor village in the mountainous region of Marsica (in the region of Abruzzi, where Silone grew up) o Soil in the area is very bad and the impoverished local peasants are forced to work as day laborers in the nearby Fucino, a dried-up lakebed (with fertile soil) o Their wish is to lease some land in this lakebed, in order to raise themselves above subsistence-level existence o This desire is all the more desperate because the peasants have been tricked by an officer in the fascist militia into signing a blank petition diverting the stream that has previously irrigated their fields into fields subsequently purchased by the Contractor, a shady businessmen and fascist government official who has assumed a powerful role in the local economy o The Contractor has begun fencing in the common land and will be the beneficiary of the new irrigation system. Without water for their land, the peasants cannot grow their own crops and face starvation o Their increasingly desperate protests against this exploitative course of action form the backdrop to the events narrated in Chapters 4 and 5 o As we join the novel, the peasants are about to discover the fate of the Fucino. (iv) Reading Questions 1. The trip to Avezzano (Chapter 4)  What is the purpose of the trip to Avezzano? Is it successful? o Land is kept in the hands of those who can make a real profit, not to the peasants o Trip into town is therefore unsuccessful  What is the significance of the episode with the banner/pennant? How do people respond to the Fontamarans‟ banner? o Their patron saint Samarocco is on the banner; the banner was laughed at when they arrive into town o The reference here is from the Latrine treaty and the agreement that Mussolini had with the Catholic Church/Pope  What aspects of fascism does the episode of the rally in Avezzano reveal?  How were the Fontamarans treated by the townspeople? How does the trip to Avezzano leave them feeling? 2. The blackshirts‟ visit to Fontamara (Chapter 5)  Introduction: who were the blackshirts?  Why do the blackshirts come to Fontamara? What is the response of the Fontamarans as the convoy of trucks makes its way up to the village?  What account do the husband and wife give of the blackshirts who arrive in Fontamara? Why might such people be attracted to fascism?  What does the cross-examination of the men in the village square tell us about the Fontamarans‟ knowledge of the fascist government? Is this portrayal believable? 3. General questions:  Why do you think Silone chose the peasants as the focus of this novel? Is this an unusual choice? In general, how does he portray the cafoni in Fontamara?  How effective do you think that Fontamara is as an anti-fascist novel? The cafoni „world-view‟ (as given by Michele Zompa): “At the head of everything is God, the Lord of Heaven. Everyone knows that. Then comes Prince Torlonia, lord of the earth. Then come Prince Torlonia‟s guards. Then come Prince Torlonia‟s guards‟ dogs. Then, nothing at all. Then nothing at all. Then nothing at all. Then come the cafoni. And that‟s all.” From Ignazio Silone: Fontamara, in The Abruzzo Trilogy (Hanover, NH: Steerforth Press, 2000), 26. (v) Important Terms  Cafoni (peasants)  Italian Socialist Party (PSI)  PNF (Italian Fascist Party)  Squadristi (squadre)  Autarky  Pontine Marshes EURO 2300 – European Culture 1/7/2013 8:54:00 AM Bertolt Brecht, Fear and Misery in the Third Reich (i) Overview of life and key works  1898 Born in Augsburg  1924 Moves from Munich to Berlin  1929 Marries Helene Wiegel  1933 Flees Nazi Germany (settling in Denmark)  1941 Leaves Scandinavia for the United States  1947 Returns to Europe  1948 Settles in communist East Germany  1956 Dies of a heart attack in Berlin  The Threepenny Opera (1928)  The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahoganny (1930)  Mother Courage and Her Children (1941)  The Life of Galileo (1943)  The Good Person of Szechwan (1943)  The Caucasian Chalk Circle (1948) (i) b. History  Mid 1920‟s moved from Munich to Berlin; coincides with the period in which he becomes a strong supported of communism  Vehemently anti-fascist, left Germany at the rise in Germany; spent some time in Denmark during exile  1935 his German citizenship is revoked; eventually emigrates to the United States and ended up on the West coast in and around Hollywood  Berliner ensemble is his company; eventually dies early of a heart attack o Fear and Misery is not one of his most famous play, not really a play but composed of 24 scenes  Kept up with the Third Reich while exiled in Denmark, lived along the coast  Deals with major political events; it was very much admired by communism as it tackled Nazism head-on  Very small scale productions, produced within France or Great Britain usually  Saw communism through the lens of class rather than the lens of race  German army is annexing the other major German speaking countries in Europe in early 1938 (ii) Fear and Misery ‘The Spy’ (Scene 10): „the gest of keeping silent, of looking over one‟s shoulder, of being frightened‟ - Brecht.  1. How does the couple feel about the Nazi regime? o Father seems to be more critical about it while the mother is more afraid of the regime itself  Doesn‟t like how the media is criticizing the catholic church o Feel as though they‟re constant being watched; the feeling that even things they say within their home isn‟t necessarily safe  2. How do they behave towards people supportive of the Nazi regime? o Upset that the maidservant is the daughter of the block warden – the person who would ensure Nazi policies are being maintained and regularly enforced – maidservant being the daughter is creating some paranoia within the house o Discussion about giving the maid more of a bonus because of this, giving bigger Christmas gifts and such o Says he is prepared to teach whatever the Nazi‟s tell him to teach; Nazi party wants to essentially rewrite history; the teacher holds the fear that he‟ll say the wrong thing and he‟s confused about what he‟s supposed to be teaching  3. How do they behave towards people who have fallen out of favour with the Nazi regime?  4. How do they feel about their son? How do they behave towards him and why? o Son seems to be very involved in activities with the Hitler Youth o Parents think in this scene that the son has run off to the Hitler Youth to essentially rat on his dad‟s political protests towards Hitler and the Nazi‟s o Major thing in National Socialism was for children to spy on their parents; didn‟t happen very often but there were instances  It was used to instill fear within the adults  5. How does the atmosphere of fear and suspicion impact upon the couple‟s own relationship? o Move Hitler‟s picture to a more prominent spot, Father puts on his iron cross to emphasize his German loyalty and patriotism ‘The Jewish Wife’ (Scene 9)  Context: Nazi anti-Semitism in the mid-1930s. o Nuremburg laws in 1935 – Jewish are German subjects but not German citizens o Declare all previous marriages between a German and a Jew to be null and void  1. What is the situation of the couple in the scene? What has been happening to them? o Fairly comfortable middle class existence  2. Why is the woman leaving? What will happen when she doesn‟t leave? o Planning to leave because of the introduction of the new legislation against the Jewish population in Germany o Due to his association with her he is in jeopardy of losing his job, somewhat ostracized by their social circle – a retreat from people associating with Jews  3. How do people react to her departure? How does she respond? o No one really seems to care all that much that she‟s leaving or understand why; people/friends may not know she‟s Jewish o She can‟t really bare the fact that they can‟t look into each other‟s eye‟s anymore o A lot of communication takes place within doors; phone conversations limited in context  4. How did the wife expect her husband to react to her leaving? How does he react? o She thought he‟d at least put up a bit of a verbal fight, she‟s said to her friend Nanner in one of the last phone calls she makes but she‟s hoping he‟ll beg her to stay but expecting a different response o When he gives her the fur coat it ensures the permanent separation between them since it‟s spring when she leaves  5. Why does she let him pretend? (iii) Useful names and terms  Elisabeth Hauptmann  Berliner Ensemble (theatre)  Anschluß („union‟), March 1938  Hitler Youth (HJ)  League of German Girls (BDM)  Stanislav Dudow  Dachau  Gestapo (Secret State Police)  Victor Klemperer  Auschwitz, Belzec and Treblinka EURO 2300 – European Culture 1/7/2013 8:54:00 AM The Spanish Civil War (i) Introduction: Spain before 1931  Spain in the 19thC: forces of reaction vs. forces of reform th th  Growth of popular protest in the late 19 and early 20 C o Italian Catholic Church o Agrarian society, somewhat underdeveloped o Power is in the hands of a pretty small and wealthy elite o Spain is small, liberal middle class; working class movement in Spain who‟s headquarters were in Barcelona o Regional nationalist movements in Catalonia; forced their political movements towards Madrid  Spain‟s declining international authority: fallout from the 1898 war and WWI o The army is a major factor; a republic does exist but is overturned in 1874 o Socialism and Marxism begin to emerge, mostly in industrialized cities like Barcelona o With that comes the Socialist Party and the Trade Union o Back in the golden age Spain was one of Europe‟s strongest parties, in 1898 the Spanish-America War decimated Spain and its forces o Spain‟s irrelevance militarily probably plays a part on its decision to remain neutral within WWI  The dictatorship of Primo Rivera, 1923-30 o Emergence of communism had a large effect in Barcelona o Early WWI period was a constant battle between peasants and the authorities o Led directly in 1923 to propose a more republican leadership in Spain led by General Miguel Primo de Rivera (ii) The origins and outbreak of the civil war, 1931-6  The three phases of the Second Republic: o (i) The Azaña era, 1931-3;  Moderate center-left government in Spain  Gave autonomy to the regions (Catalonia)  Put limits on the army‟s autonomy  Made some attempt to alleviate some of the economic crisis o (ii) The bienio negro, 1934-6;  Period of reaction; republic is in the hands of the government that wants to destroy it  European context of this time: fascism is on the rise, Mussolini has been in power for a decade and Hitler has just come to power in 1933 and fascism seems to be overtaking societies o (iii) The Popular Front government, Feb-Jul 1936.  Left-wing coalition that was anti-fascist  Popular front coalition is divided amongst revolutionists and reformists; attacking church property and sometimes churchmen and seizing land from wealthy landowners o The Nationalist uprising against the Republic, Jul 1936  Right wing political figure is assassinated, a group of army officers led by Francisco  In doing so began the Spanish Civil War (iii) The course and end of the war, 1936-9  The international importance of the Spanish Civil War o Crucial event in the history of Europe at this period o The definitive event within Europe during the 1930‟s o Strengthened the Axis alliance between Italy and Germany o In response of the remaining European democracies we can see the roots of appeasement; trying to make deals with the fascist powers instead of confronting them o Grabs the attention of writers and artists, really anyone involved in politics at this period  Can be seen as a dress rehearsal for WWII o Nationalists under Franco included the army, the Church and wealthy landowners o Republicans were much more diverse and fractured; bitterly divided among various groups  Middle class modernists (liberals)  Spanish Socialist Party  Spanish Communist Party  Anarcho-Syndicalist Trade Union  Workers‟ Party of Marxist Unification  Who supported the Nationalists and the Republicans (at home and abroad) o Nationalist received substantial support from Italy and Germany; most of the democracies of Europe stay out of things, Soviet Union sends aid but with strings attached which creates a paranoid atmosphere amongst the left o George Orwell was one of the many men and women to fight fascism; seen as a test case with the idea that if fascism cannot be defeated here than it does not look good for the rest of Europe  Nationalist breakthrough and victory, 1939; why the Nationalists won o More military backing capture the left wing host and capture Madrid in March o Spanish republic is finally defeated, at least 6,000 lives were lost during this period o Hitler is on the march, German army has spread its reach amongst most of central Europe (iv) Left-wing artists and writers and the Spanish Civil War  From Lorca to Hemingway: artists and writers who supported the Republican cause o Internal cause; people were drawn to the civil war as Europe‟s testing ground to withstand the fascist threat o Artists all over Europe claimed their loyalty to the Spanish Republic o Writers come to Spain to gain influence and demonstrate support; Hemingway, Orwell, Lorca, etc.  Come to Spain as journalists or soldiers – express their solidarity with the Republican force o Pablo Picasso was of course Spanish but had been living in Paris th since the early start of the 20 century; was not a politician by any sort but was sympathetic to the Spanish Republic  The attack, that inspired Picasso‟s painting, took place right in the middle of the day, 1600 of the towns residents were killed in the attack o This air attack previewed what was going to be a key characteristic during the Second World War; air bombings of civilian spaces all over Europe o Exhibited at the world far in Paris in 1937, very much political art that speaks to the immediacy of the times  Picasso‟s Guernica (1937): „Painting is not meant to decorate apartments. It is an offensive and defensive weapon against the enemy‟. (v) Useful names and terms  Basque country  Castile  Pronunciamentos („military coups‟)  First Republic (1868-74)  Civil Guard (Guardia Civil)  „Bolshevik triennium‟ (1918-21)  General Miguel Primo de Rivera  King Alfonso XIII  Second Republic (1931-9)  Manuel Azaña  Bienio negro („two black years‟)  Falange (1933)  José Calvo Sotelo  Condor Legion  International Brigades  Federico García Lorca  Arthur Koestler  WH Auden  World Fair (Paris, 1937)  Reina Sofia museum, Madrid (vi) Abbreviations  CNT Anarcho-syndicalist trade union  PCE Spanish Communist Party  POUM Workers‟ Party of Marxist Unification (Trotskyite)  PSOE Spanish Socialist Party  UGT Socialist-affiliated trade union organization EURO 2300 – European Culture 1/7/2013 8:54:00 AM Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill, and the Three-Penny Opera (Die Dr
More Less

Related notes for EURO 2300

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.