Chapter 5 FRHD.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Robin Milhausen

Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT NUTRIENTS Essential nutrients: body needs and cant make itself; provide energy, build and repair tissues, regulate body functions -6 essential nutrients: water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals  Water: 60% of body  Energy from carbs, proteins fats (macronutrients: body need in large amounts) o Measure in calories (9 cal/g fat , 4 cal/g in protein and carbs) o Substitute in energy from one another  Vitamins and minerals= micronutrients (need in small amounts)  Nutrient intake(cal.): 45-65% carbs, 20-35% fat, 10-35% protein Water  carries nutrients and removes waste; dissolves a.a, glucose, minerals; cleans body by removing toxins, regulate body temp.  lose 2-2.5 L (8-10cups) from urination, sweat, bowel movements, exhale  rehydrate=carb.containing sport drinks and unsweetened juices  caffeinate beverages contribute to fluids u drink but can leave u dehydrated (diuretic effects) Calories  measure of amount of energy derived from food  depend on sex, age, weight, %body fat,BMR (basal metabolic rate)  activity level affect requirements Females(age 19-30) Males (19-30 Sedementary level(daily activities-household tasks and walking to bus)=1900cal. 2500 Low active level: daily activites+ 30-60min daily mod.activity(walking):2100cal/day 2700 Active level: daily activites+ >60min daily mod. activity= 2350 cal. 3000 Protein  help build new tissue to keep hair, skin, and eyesight healthy; build antibodies, enzymes, hormones, other compounds; provide fuel for body  made of 20 amino acids  complete proteins: animal source(meat,fish,poultry, dair prod. ) o provide 8 essential a.a (body cant produce)  incomplete proteins (grains, dry beans, nuts) o low level of 1-2 ess. a.a but high level of others (miss 1-2 ess. a.a)  2 incomplete (rice and beans) give good amount of proteins = complementary protein Carbohydrates  provide brain (only carb. dependent organ) and body with glucose (fuel)  monosaccharides(glucose,fructose,galactose): simple sugars/carbs hv 1 simple sugar unit o natural sugars: lactose in milk, fructose in fruits, added sugar (candy, pastries, fruit drink)  dissacharides(sucrose, lactose, maltose, table sugar) has 2units linked by chem. bond o broken into simple sugar b4 body can use  polysaccharides(starches and glycogen) aka complex carbs (10+ units of sugar)=complex carbs  fibre and starch: 2 major forms of complex carbs  carbs that are digestible break down(starch)monosac. in intestine, absorbed by small int. and stored as glycogen in liver/muscle cells or oxidized to give metabolically usable energy (break down into glucose)  whole grains more nutritious than refined grains; conponents: o bran(fibre rich outer layer), endosperm (middle layer), germ (nutritious inner layer)  low carb nutrition bar may be high in sat. fats and cal.; cause digestive prob.(carbssweeteners) Fibre  Dietary fibre: non digestible carbs found in plant foods (leaves stems…)  Functional fibre: isolated, non digestible carbs added to food=benefit humans  Total fibre: sum of both above  Solubel fibre: absorve water, fibre swell, form gels, trap nutrients (glucose)= slow absorption process in blood=food longer in small intestine=feel full longer o Less dietary fat and cholesterol absorbed  Insoluble fibre: (cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose) cling to water and help prevent constipation and diverticulosis (painful inflammation of the bowel)  Gradual increase cus sudden= bloating and gas Glycemic Index  A measure of how much a carb-containing food likely to raise ur blood sugar (highlow)  Low GI: health benefits= prevent type 2 diabetes, control b.s levels, control blood choles. Levels short term weight loss  High GI: grain products; some low (whole wheat, oatmeal, sweet potatoes) Fats (lipids) -carry fat soluble vit A,D,E,K, aid in these vit. Absorption in intestine, protect organs from injury, regulate body temp., play imp. role in growth and development -made of C and H Forms of Fat -differ by number of fatty acids and chem . structure Saturated Fats  provide energy; trigger production of cholesterol (i.e butter, oil,shortening,bacon)  fats with C atoms saturated w/ Hatoms  Animal fats are saturated fats (solid at rm temp.)  diet high in sat. fats= rise in bad cholesterol (LDL)= higher risk of heart disease Cholesterol  fat made by our bodies and circulate in bloods  80% made in liver, 20% in food  made of HDL (high density lipoproteins), LDLs, VLDLs (very low) o HDL: help transport chol. To liver for metabolism and leiminations; remove LDL that build up on inner walls of arteries (plaque)  Plaque restrict blood flow=blood clot; if in artery lead to brain=stroke; lead to heart=heart attack  LDL: benefit- move cholesterol to body cells  VLDL: made by liver, body’s internal transport highway for lipids, allow fats and cholesterol to move in bloodstream o Transport triglyceride Unsaturated Fats  Have +1 double bonded C in molecule and liquid at rm temp.  Also provide energy, but trigger more good cholesterol production and less bad choles. Production  2 forms: monounsaturated (improve blood chol. Level(peanut and olive oils) and polyunsaturated: omega-3(fattu fish, flaxseed, nuts)(prevent blood clots, lower triglycerides) &omega-6 fatty acids(lowers LDL and HDL= moderation)  partially hydrogenated oils=unsat. Fatty acids (trans fatty acids) o ie. margarine, baked goods, fried foods  behave as saturated fats but twice as damaging (inc LDL levels and dec. HDL of cholesterol How Much Fat Is Okay? -sat and and trans fats: 10% of calories -oils trans fat free and low in sat. fats: coybean, canola, olive, corn,sunflower -lower butter, margarine, sour cream -remove skin, visible fat b4 cook and drain fat after cook; stay away from cold cuts -low fat diet bad cus when eat low fat and high level carbs= HDL decline HEALTHFUL FATTY ACIDS: monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 polyunsaturated UNHEALTHY FATTY ACIDS: saturated, trans fats EATING FOR GOOD HEALTH -healthy eating= follow Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide (w/ translated versions-multicultural) What is a Serving Size? Food Portions and Servings  confused on what serving is cus of supersized meals in restaurants= food guide  Food guide=2 parts: rainbow side (foods put into 4 groups and shows kinds of foods for healthy eating) and bar side (recommended servins/day for diff age groups and examples of 1 serving o variety of healthy food and limit salt, alcohol, caffeine  Choose: lower fat foods, whole/enriched grains, dark green and orange veges and orange fruits, low fat milk, leaner meat/poultry/fish, dried peas, beans, lentils  # of servings depend on age, sex, body size activity level, pregnant or breastfeeding o ppl need more than required servings: preg. & breastfeeding women, male teens, very activ Vegetables and Fruits  low in fat, high in fibre, have imp. vit. (ie. A &C) and minerals (Fe, Mg)  7-8 servings (females 19-50) and 8-10 servings (males 19-50)  1 serving veg. : 124 mL (1/2 cup fresh, frozen, canned vegs/fresh salad), medium size carrot/potato,  dark green veg(kale, collard, turnip, mustard) provide Ca and Fe  winter squash, carrots, broccoli, cabbage, kohlrabi, and cauliflower (crucifers) high in fibre, rich in vit, excellent sources of indoles (lower cancer risk)  Fruits: good source of vit, min., fibre  1 serving: med. apple, ½ cup (125 ml of chopped, cooked canned juiced fruit Grain Products  complex carbs  females (19-50): 6-7 servings; males (19-50) 8 servings  sugar in simple carbs provide long term energy; complex carbs rich in vit, minerals, other nutrient  1 serving: 1 slice bread, 30g cold cereal, ¾ cup (175 mL) hot cereal o 2serving: bagel,pita,bun, 1cup pasta/rice  only fattening when add to it (butter, cream) Milk and Alternatives  high in Ca, riboflavin, protein, vit A and12 ; choose low-no fat  male and female (19-50): 2 servings; preg/breastfeeding : 3-4 servings  1 serving: 1 cup milk, ¾ cup plain yogurt, 50 g hard cheese  lactose intolerance (body not made enough lactase enzyme)= milk prod. Travel through stomach undigested and ferment in small bowel=gas, cramps, diarrhea o oral lactase supplement, lactose-hydrolyzed milk, inc tolerance by add small amountfood  whole milk2% (reduced fat)1% (low fat)skim (no fat) milk Meat and Alternatives  female (19-50) 2 servings; males 3 servings  1 serving: 50-100g lean,cooked meat, fish, poultry/ 1 egg/ 125-250 ml dry beans, 2 tbsp peanut butter  broil or roast, trim fat, choose lean meats, drain fat from ground beef b4 cook  Processed chicken and turkey products (bologna, and salamis) bad cus 45-90% fat Oils and Fats  Unsaturated fats (30-45 mL /2-3
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