CH. 7 SUMMARY.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

Chapter 7 summary FRHD 1010 Physical Growth & Sensory development In middle childhood the steady growth average is 2-3 inches/year in height o Weight: 5-7 pounds per year Boys are typically taller than girls; both gender at this age are usual slim o 6-10 year olds usually have lowest body mass index (BMI) BMI- a measure of the ratio of weight to height Girl tend to have more body fat, and boys develop more muscle (about age 10) Age 6-12 kids their 20 primary teeth (1 to go are the front 2) Kids hearing and sight change o Hearing is improved b/c the tube in the inner ear grows longer and narrower, disabling fluid & bacteria from the mouth to reach the ear o Sight is worsened more for kids in developed countries due to myopia; (ie. To be nearsighted) caused by reading, writing, and computer usage weakens eye sight Myopia is genetic, of children in developed countries need glasses by end of middle childhood Nutrition and Malnutrition Middle childhood Malnutrition Children are less likely to be affected by malnutrition, the body has enough resources to bypass effects of lack of food o Malnutrition can however, cause detrimental effects on children o Survivors of early malnutrition can have physical, and cognitive damage to their bodies Malnutrition in early development can lead to sickness, death, or disease Middle childhood our bodies are stronger with increased immune systems and can be less severely affected by malnutrition o Ie. Kids with high nutrition levels are more likely to explore new environments, more energetic, less anxiety, increased positive emotion Obesity Effects more children in developed countries Children 6-10 are overweight if BMI is 18+ o Obese is BMI 21+ o Obesity is highest in + affluent regions (N.A & Europe); lowest in less affluent countries (Africa & South Asia) In N.A affluent minorities have higher obesity rates (African American, Latino etc.) Change leading to obesity is: Diet; less home prepped meals, more fast foods w/ increased fat, sugar, sodium content o Diet reflects social changes; single parent households Developing countries are feeling similar affects as their diets mimic developed country diets Chapter 7 summary FRHD 1010 Change leading to obesity is: Television; children in developed countries watch 2+ HRS per day o Studies show children 4-11 watching 3 HRS have 40% more body fat than those that watch HR per day o Increased television decreases physical exercise, increases vulnerability to be exposed to advertisements of bad diet foods African Americans & Latinos are + obese b/c they watch more television per day Genetics & Obesity Rates of obesity are increased among MZ twins vs. DZ twins New discovered gene (FTO gene) increases childrens risk for obesity o Genetics arent strong enough to explain recent increases Obesity has social & physical consequences to children Social: more likely to be disclosed from social groups and increased teasing o More likely to have negative stigmas ie. Lazy, sloppy, and ugly, etc. o By middle childhood this can lead to both emotional and behavioral problems Physical: obesity can lead to obesity in middle childhood causing blindness, kidney failure and even stroke o 80% of obese children are obese in adulthood; thus causing potential high blood pressure, heart attack, and cancer o Diabetes in adulthood proves to have much more risk of being fatal In research it has been proven that less than obese children have obese parents o School lunches also are infamous to serving unhealthy foods o Standards are being increased to ensure children are offered healthy options Illness & Injuries Middle Childhood Middle childhood is one of the safest ages in both developing & developed countries as death rates are lower Developed countries; children are vaccinated against fatal diseases o Ie. Smallpox, typhus, diphtheria Developing countries; some children have access to various vaccinations, however over time humans have grown far stronger immune systems to fight off diseases which were fatal in past decades Rates of minor illnesses have declined b/c of public health policies in developed countries o Ie. food production cleaner and safer & content is closely watched o Ie. Air & water more sanitary b/c of laws and restrictions of the government In 1978 30% of children ages 5-10 had elevated levels of lead in their bodies, in 2001 the rate had dropped to 1% b/c of the reduced lead from gas, and household paint Chapter 7 summary FRHD 1010 Recent drawback is asthma; a chronic illness of the lungs characterized by wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath o Asthma attacks are common, typically caused by weather conditions, illness, allergies, emotional stress, etc. Asthma levels are increasing worldwide, in children in middle childhood, more so in boys o Asthma can be caused by low birth weight, poverty, having a smoking living in the home, and obesity Motor Development Gross Motor Development Childrens balance improves o Making (middle childhood) children more steady, ie. riding a bike without training wheels Become stronger o Ie. Ability to jump higher, throwing a ball father Coordination improves o Improved ability in swimming, skating, and activities that involves synchronization Agility improves o Increasing childrens ability to run, play sports such as soccer, football etc. Reaction time o Develops and becomes faster, allowing children to react to fast-paced situations, and to new information o Ie. When playing ping pong, the decision to hit or let it bounce Middle childhood is prime time for children to get involved in (organized) sports o In Canada and the USA, of the children are involved in an organized sport between the ages of 5-14 o Boys are + likely to get involved in organized sports, girls participation is on the rise especially in soccer, swimming, and gymnastics Public health advocates do not believe that children are being involved in enough physical/ increased motor development activities as they should o Thus causing obesity rates to increase Fine motor Development Children in early childhood are only able to draw 2D pictures which are crude and undetailed o However in middle childhood children are able to draw more detailed 3D pictures Children are able to make a distinction between farther, and closer objects in their drawings, and are able to overlap images In early childhood children can write a few routine letters and numbers o In middle childhood children have far more advanced skills
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.