FRHD 1020 Lecture 15: frhd1020- march20

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
Shayna Skakoon- Sparling

Aging Families “getting older” in 2 ways:  Population aging: (or the population’s age structure) a population is ‘old’ when it contains a large portion of elderly people  Individual aging: the biological, physiological, psychological, and social changes that occur over the life cycle. 3 components that effect the aging of population: 1. Mortality rates 2. Fertility/birth rates 3. Migration (within country aka internally or between countries aka externally) - When at least 10% of the population is over 65 the population is considered old. - Can also look at the median age of a population - Demographers: people who study changes in population. They are interested in the age of a population because this will affect the need for specific types of social supports and resources and can help to inform poly-makers on where to allocate resources based on need. E.g. health care  3 ways to measure dependency: 1. Age dependency ratio: number of people over 65 divided by the number of people between 20 and 64 2. Youth dependency ratio: people aged 0-19vdevided by the number of people aged between 20 and 64 3. Total dependency ratio: number of people from 0-19 plus the number of people over 65 divided by the number of people between the ages of 20-64. Can roughly tell us the proportion of dependency in a population as well as where the majority of that dependency is located (young or old)  Population pyramid: graphs that show the distribution of individuals in a population by age 1. Divided by gender  Less developed regions have younger population because of higher fertility rate and shorter life expectancy What is Aging?  Individual Aging: consists of biological, physiological, psychological and social changes that occur over the life cycle. E.g. greying of hair  Subcategories of the elderly:  Young- old:65-74  Old-old:75-84  Oldest old:85 and older Age effects: outcome that occur due to one’s age or developmental stage Cohort effects: outcomes that occur because one is born in a particular period Period effects: outcomes that occur due to what is happening at the time of measurement  Chronological aging: the measure of old according to one’s age, passing of time  Functional age: one’s age measured by competence or performance  A person can have a functional age that is younger or older then chronological age  Compression of morbidity hypothesis: more people today than in the past postpone the onset of chronic disability; therefore the period between being seriously ill and death has been shortened  Episodic memory: memory for personal events and experiences  Working memory: ability to hold a small amount of information in an available state  Implicit memory: do not need to think to perform a task  Sematic memory: memory for functional information  Main factor that effects our ability to process information is attention  Selective attention: the ability to focus on relevant information while ignoring what is irrelevant  Sustained attention: the ability to stay focused o a particular thing over time  Attentional control: the ability to multi task with our attention  Losses in these areas are due to lack of practice  We develop wisdom as we age  Old people are better at foreshadowing and solving problems  Wisdom: the ability to apply knowledge of life events and conditions to make optimal decisions when trying to solve life problems  7 dimensions of well being, what causes people to be happy when some are depressed? o Positive self evaluation and self acceptance o Positive relationships o Having autonomy and self determination o Having mastery over ones environment o Effectively managing ones life o Having a sense of purpose o Feeling of growth and development  When a person is stressed for a long time the immune system stops producing t cells which are needed to fight bacteria and viruses  Positive reappraisal: when an individual tries to focus on the good aspects rather then the bad  Problem focused coping: individual focuses his or her thoughts and behaviours on things he or she can do to manage or resolve the underlying cause of the stress.  Internal locus of control: belief that they have control over their life o Individual is more likely to confront a problem directly since he or she believes their behaviour will make a chance. More likely to accept responsibility of what is happening in their life. If something cannot be controlled like disease then their well-being is low  External locus of control: experience in life come due to fate, by chance, other people or God o Respond defensively to problems or deny it exists  Three main types of grandparents:
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