Empirical Derived from or based on observation and experimentation
Reliability The consistency or accuracy of a measure.
Validity The degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to
Ethnographic Observation A study method in which behaviours and customs
are observed within a group’s native environment.
Vasocongestion Congestion resulting from the flow of blood.
Myotonia Muscle tension
Vulva The externa sexual structures of the female
Mons Veneris A mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone (the joining
of the pelvic bones at the abdomen and above the clitoris) the mons veneris is
also known as the mons pubis, or the mons.
Labia Majora Large folds of skin that run downward from the mons alon the
side of the vulva
Labia Minora Hairless, light coloured membranes located between the labia
Clitoris A female sex organ consisting of a shaft and a glans, located aboce
the urethral opening. Extremely sensitive to sexual sensation.
Corpora cavernosa Masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become
engorges with blood and stiffen in response to sexual stimulation. Prepuce The fold of skin covering the glans of the clitoris (or of the penis in
Homologous Similar in structure; developing from the same embryonic
Analogous Similar in function
Urethral Opening The opening through which urine passes from the females
Clitoridectomy Surgical removal of the clitoris.
Cystitis An inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Introitus the Vaginal opening.
Hymen A fold of tissue across the vaginal opening that’s usually present at
birth and remains at least partly intact until a woman engages in sexual
Perineum The skin under lying tissue that lies between the vaginal opening
and the anus.
Episiotomy A surgical incision in the perineum that ma be made during
childbirth, to protect the vagina from tearing.
Sphincters Ring shaped muscles that surround body openings, which they
open or close by expanding or contracting.
Crura Anatomic structures resembling legs that attach the clitoris to the
Vestibular bulbs Cavernous structures that extend downward along the
sides of the introitus and swell during sexual arousal Vagina The tubular female sex organ that contains the penis during sexual
intercourse and through which a baby is born.
Bartholins glands Glands that lie just inside the minor lips and secrete fluid
just before orgasm.
Pubococcygeus muscle The muscle that encircles the entrance to the vagina.
Douche Application of a jet of liquid to the vagina as a rinse.
Vaginitis Vaginal Inflammation
Cervix The lower end of the uterus
Os-> The opening in the middle of the cervix.
Uterus the hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized ovum
implants and develops until birth
Radiotherapy Treatment of a disease by X-rays or by emissions from a
Pap test Examination of a sample of cervical cells for cervical cancer and
Fallopian tubes Tubes that extend from the upper uterus towards the
ovaries, conduction ova to the uterus.
Ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants outside
the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.
Ovaries Almond-shaped organs that produce ova and the hormones
estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are part of the endocrine system. Estrogen A generic term for female sex hormones or synthetic compounds
that promote the development of female sex characteristics and regulate the
Progesterone A steroid hormone that stimulates proliferation of the
endometrium, and is involves in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum or prepared synthetically.
Follicle A capsule within an ovary, containing an ovum.
Secondary sex characteristics Traits that distinguish women from men but
are not directly involved in reproduction
Mammary glands Milk secreting glands (15-20 clusters in each breast)
Areola The dark ring on the breast that encircles the nipple.
Ovulation The process by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and
releases an avum
Corpus luteum An avrian follicle that has released an ovum. The corus
luteum remains in existence only after pregnancy begins
Endocrine gland A gland that secretes a hormone directly into the blood,
rather than through a dict. Ex. Thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, as well
as ovaries and testes.
Menarche the first menstrual period.
Hypothalamus A bundle of neural cell bodies involved in regulating body