Chapter 15 – Sexual Variations.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2100
Cindy Clarke

Chapter 15 – Sexual Variations Paraphilias: a diagnostic category used by the American Psychiatric Association to describe atypical patterns of sexual arousal or behaviour that become problematic in the eyes of the individual or society, such as fetishism and exhibitionism. The urges are acted on or are distressing to the individual.  Some paraphilias are generally harmless and victimless, such as fetishism and cross-dressing to achieve sexual arousal  Charles Moser proposed that the concept of Sexual Interest Disorder (SID) should be substituted for paraphilia  Key issue is whether that behaviour is causing distress or dysfunction for the individual  Sexual sadism in which sexual arousal is connected to hurting or humiliating another person, can be very harmful when it is forced upon a non-consenting person.  Except for the case of sexual masochism, paraphilias are believed to occur mostly among men Fetishism: a paraphilia in which an inanimate object such as an article of clothing or items made of rubber, leather, or silk elicit sexual arousal Partialism: a paraphilia related to fetishism in which sexual arousal is exaggerated associated with a particular body part, such as feet, breasts, or buttocks  Most fetishes and partialsims are harmless Transvestism: a paraphilia in which a person repeatedly cross-dresses to achieve sexual arousal or gratification, or is troubled by persistent, recurring urges to cross- dress  Become excited by wearing articles of clothing – the fetishistic objects – of the other gender  Appear to be motivated by autogynephilia – a condition in which the individual is sexually stimulated by fantasies that their own bodies are female  Transvestites are usually sexually gratified by cross-dressing and masturbating or having sex with others while cross-dressing  Transsexuals usually cross-dress because they are uncomfortable with the attire associated with their anatomic sex and truly wish to be members of the other sex  Evidence of biological hormonal and neurological abnormalities in transvestism is mixed  Some men make a living by impersonating women like Marilyn Monroe and Madonna on stage and are not motivated by sexual arousal  Segments of the gay community, it is fashionable to masquerade as a woman Exhibitionism: a paraphilia characterized by persistent, powerful urges and sexual fantasies that involve exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers for the purpose of achieving sexual arousal or gratification  Usually begins before age 18  Declines markedly after the age of 40  Men who exhibit may be at high risk for engaging in more serious offences  Some evidence suggests that exhibitiionists may be attempting to assert their masculinity by evoking a response from their victims  Exhibitionists to be shy, dependent, passive, lacking in sexual and social skills, and even inhibited  Preferred victims are typically girls or young women  Exhibitionism by women seems to be increasing Obscene Telephone Calling and chat Scatophilia  Obscene phone callers (almost all whom are male) seek to become sexually aroused by shocking their victims  The obscene phone caller “exposes” himself verbally by uttering obscenities and sexual provocations to a non-consenting person Telephone Scatologia: a paraphillia characterized by the making of obscene telephone calls  Few obscene callers are women  Women who are charged with such offenses are generally motivated by rage for some actual or fantasized rejection rather than the desire for sexual arousal  Male obscene phone callers are generally motivated by a desire for sexual excitement and usually choose their victims randomly  Typically masturbate during the phone call or shortly afterward  Typical obscene caller is a socially inadequate heterosexual male who has has difficulty forming intimate relationships with women Voyeurism Voyeurism: a paraphilia characterized by strong, repetitive urges and related sexual fantasies of observing unsuspecting strangers who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual relations  Characterized by urges to spy on unsuspecting strangers  Most voyeurs are nonviolent  Voyeurs who break into and enter homes or buildings, or who tap at windows to gain the attention of victims are among the most dangerous Sexual Masochism Sexual Masochism: a paraphilia characterized by the desire or need for pain or humiliation to enhance sexual arousal so that gratification may be attained  Only paraphilia that is found among women with some frequency, yet still more prevelant in men  Masochism is derived from the name os the Australian storyteller Lepold von Sacher-Masoch  Sexual masochists may derive pleasure from various types of punishing experiences, including being restrained (called bondage), blindfolded (sensory bondage), spanked, whipped, or made to perform humiliating acts, such as walking around on all fours or being subjected to vulgar insults Bondage: ritual restraint, as by shackles, as practiced by many sexual masochists Sexual Sadists: people who become sexually aroused by inflicting pain or humiliation on others  When the urge for pain for purposes of sexual arousal becomes so persistent or strong that overshadows other sources of sexual stimulation, or when the masochistic experiences causes physical or psychological harm, many would say that the boundary between normality and abnormality has been breached Hypoxyphilia: a practice in which a person seeks to enhance sexual arousal, usually during masturbation, by becoming deprived of oxygen Sexual Sadism Sexual Sadism: a paraphilia characterized by the desire or need to inflict pain or humiliation on others to enhance sexual arousal so that gratification is attained  Named after Marquis de Sade  Urges are acted on or are disturbing enough to cause personal distress  A small minority – stalk and attack non-consenting victims Sadomasochism Sadomasochism: a mutually gratifying sexual interaction between consenting sex partners in which sexual arousal is associated with the infliction and receipt of pain or humiliation. Commonly known as S&M.  A variation is B&D (bondage and discipline) which involves restraining a submissive partner and punishing them either physically or verbally  The term BDSM is often used instead of S&M  Occasional S&M is quite common among the general population  In a small minority of relationships, referred to as 24/7 S&M slavery, the participants attempt to live full-time in an owner-slave relationship  The majority of these relationships were long lasting and satisfying  S&M subculture is catered by sex shops that sell S&M paraphernalia and magazines  S&M participants may be heterosexual, gay, or bisexual  People who seek sexual excitement by enacting both sadistic and masochistic roles are known as sadomasochists  Natural chemicals called endorphins, similar to opiates, are released in the brain in response to pain and produce feelings of euphoria and general well- being Frotteurism Frotteurism: a paraphilia characterized by recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies that involve rubbing against or touching a non-consent
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