Children and Youth with Exceptionalities
Week 2 Lecture 2
Current Trends and Issues
Collaboration and Participation in General Education Classrooms
Professionals must provide some form of support for students with exceptionalities.
1. Pre-referral teams and response to intervention models
2. Collaborative consultation
4. Curricula and instruction strategies
5. Accommodations and adaptations
• Prereferral Teams (PRTs)
– PRTs are groups of professionals, involves 3 teams, who work with general education
teachers to help identify individualized strategies for students before a referral for special
education evaluation is made. (ie, Special Educators, teachers, etc). When the student is
initially referred, the child has not yet been “diagnosed”.
• Response to Intervention (RTI)
– RTI usually provides for three standardized levels of intervention for students having
problems, with closely monitored progress before a referral is made. Research based
• Level 1: Verification of quality research based instruction, with various
changes and various other supports for the student. If the student
performance has not improved by level 1, they move to level 2.
• Level 2: Individual or peer instruction on level of difficulty. If
improvement is still not seen, the student moves to level 3.
• Level 3: Referral to Special Education Services
• Difference between PRTs and RTI. RTI students move through steps that are
predetermined and the student are closely monitored. PRTs interventions are determined
on an individual basis, and a student’s progress may or may not be closely monitored.
• Collaborative Consultation
– Support provided to general education teachers by consultant (special education
1. Allows a special educator to be directly involved.
2. Direct means of special education service that neither stigmatizes.
- Involves two or more professionals that work together who are delivering instruction to
a blended group of students in one setting.
– Allows for direct involvement of special education teacher in general classroom.
– Allows for special education delivery to students with exceptionalities without
segregation. • Curricula and Instructional Strategies
– Cooperative learning – instructional strategy, good way of integrating students with
exceptionalities into groups of students that do not have exceptionalities. Students are
working in groups to solve problems together.
– Peer-mediated instruction – peers assist in teaching academic or social skills.
– Peer tutoring – students can effectively tutor each other. The tutoring role can be
assigned to both the student with the exceptionality and the student without.
– Classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) – General done by all students in the class.
– Partial participation – approach in which students with exceptionalities to engage in
the same activities as regular students but on a reduced basis. It allows the child to
participate as much as possible.
• Accommodations and Adaptations
– Modifications – refers to either adaptations or accommodations.
– Accommodations - teacher is changing their structural strategy, but it does not change
the difficulty. (ie. teacher uses a lot of visuals).
– Adaptations - changes in curricular content or the conceptual difficulty. (ie. teacher
may let a child with an exceptionality use open book on the test)
– Tiered assignments – choices for assignments on a similar topic that vary in difficulty
• Think about the various examples of accommodations for assessments. Why do some
view such accommodations as ‘unfai