Chapter 7 Summary.docx

7 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2110
Agnieszka Woznia

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Chapter 7 Summary: Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder History Dr. George Still Physician credited being one of the first to bring what is now called ADHD to attention of the medical profession Described cases of children who displayed cruelty, impulsivity, disobedience and problems of attention and hyperactivity Referred to them as having defective moral control o Involves inhibitory volition: the ability to refrain from acting in impulsively inappropriate behaviours Barkley Based on the notion that an essential impairment in ADHD is a deficit involving behavioural inhibition Speculated many children had mild brain pathology, many children had normal intelligence, was more prevalent in boys than girls, evidence towards heredity, many children and relatives also had other physical problems (ex: depression) Kurt Goldstein Reported on psychological effects on brain injury in soldiers (suffered head wounds in WW1) (inability to concentrate on what was in front of them, were overly distracted by all surrounding things) Witnessed disorganized behaviour, hyperactivity, perseveration and forced responses to stimuli Perseveration: tendency to repeat behaviours over and over again The Strauss Syndrome Heinz Werner and Alfred Strauss, 1930s and 1940s Tried to replicate Goldsteins findings and noted the same behaviours (distracted easily and hyperactivity) in children with intellectual disabilities Did experiments showing slides with pictures and background images, children with supposed brain damage responded that they saw the background images(normally lines, ex. Wavy) Children showing distractibility and hyperactivity were considered to be exhibiting the Strauss Syndrome William Cruickshank 1957 Used the experiment by Werner and Strauss with children who had cerebral palsy and had normal intelligence Demonstrated that those without intellectual abilities could also have symptoms of distractibility and hyperactivity Was first to create an educational program that meets criteria for ADHD Children were referred to as minimally brain injured if they had normal intelligence but displayed symptoms of distractibility and hyperactivity Replaced with label hyperactive child syndrome in 1960s which was preferred as it describes behaviour not on unreliable diagnosis of brain injury By the 1980s, the label was no longer favoured, as inattention was being noted as a more important symptom to be recognized
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