Chapter 10.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Agnieszka Woznia

Chapter 10-Learners who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (pg 260-292) Facts  Most people who are deaf have some residual hearing(amount of hearing remaining after hearing loss)-different in all cases  One cannot predict the severity of an exceptionality, but generally people who are deaf possess more difficulty than individuals who are blind because they have lost the ability to understand and speak oral language  When reading lips, people who are deaf also take advantage of reading visual cues (facial expression) this is call speech-reading  ASL is a true language and possess its own set of grammatical rules  People in the Deaf community see separate placements as a way of fostering the Deaf culture -people who are deaf or hard of hearing may experience isolation due to communication problems  Decibels-units of loudness of sounds, 0 dB is people with normal hearing can just detect sound Deaf and Hard of Hearing  A deaf person whose hearing abilities makes it impossible to process linguistic information through audition and this is with or without a hearing aid  A person who is hard of hearing (with use of a hearing aid) has sufficient residual hearing to enable the process of linguistic information through audition  Congenitally deaf-present at birth, can be caused by genetic factors that may have occurred during fetal development or injuries during birth  Adventitiously deaf- occurs through illness or accident but was born with normal hearing  Prelingual deafness- deafness that occurs usually at birth before language development  Postingual deafness-deafness occurring after the development of speech and language Prevalence -accuracy varies due to the definition, population studied and the accuracy of testing -approx 13 percent of children aged 0-14 have some form of hearing loss Anatomy of the Ear Outer ear  Tympanic membrane-the boundary between the middle and outer ear, the sound gathered vibrates here  Auricle-visible part of the ear, this collects the sounds and funnels the sounds to the eardrum via the external auditory canal Middle ear  Ossicles-three tiny bones that make it possible to transfer sound waves to the eardrum to the oval window which connects the middle ear to the inner ear malleus-hammer shaped bone incus-anvil shaped bone part of the chain stapes-stirrup shaped bone part of the ossicular chain  oval window-the link between the middle and inner ear Inner ear  vestibular mechanism-upper portion of the inner ear and consists of 3 soft canals filled with fluid and sensitive to certain movements  cochlea-snail shaped organ that lies below the vestibular mechanism, this part of the ear converts the sounds coming from the middle ear into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain Measurement of Hearing Ability  audiologist-individual trained in audiology  otoacoustic emissions-low intensity sounds produced by the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation, used to detect problems in very young children  pure-tone audiometry-different intensities and frequencies are tested to determine a person’s hearing loss  hertz (Hz)-a unit of measurement of the frequency of sound  audiometric zero-lowest level at which people with normal hearing can hear  speech audiometry-tests a person’s detection and understanding of speech rather than pure tones to determine hearing loss  speech reception threshold(SRT)-decibel level in which a person can hear sounds  play audiometry-gamelike to test hearing of the young and hard to test children –teaches child how to respond to sounds  tympanometry-measuring the middle ear in response to pressure and sound  evoked response audiomet
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