WEEK 1-Introduction to Exceptional Youth and Children.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Taniesha Burkes

Introduction to Exceptional Youth and Children KEY TERMS Exceptionality: is the diminished capacity to perform in a specific way Disability: An inability to do something that most people with typical maturation can do. It is a subset of inability and is used to refer to an attribute of a person Handicap: Results from the limitations imposed by the environment and by attitudes toward a person with disabilities. It is the source of the limitation (ex. ramps, wheelchairs) Exceptional Learners -Are those who require special education services if they are to reach their full human potential • Diversity of characteristics- difficult to generalize particular traits • Need for special education- Assessment must show that learner is unable to make satisfactory progress without special education services SPECIAL EDUCATION -Means specially designed instruction and resources that meets the needs of an exceptional student. Possible forms of Special Education: • Specialized materials • Specialized teaching techniques (more breaks) • Specialized equipment • Related services Is Labeling Appropriate? -Labels are used to describe groups of exceptional children -Labeling assumptions • Disability is the defining characteristic of that student • All students with that label is more similar than different -Count the number of students with disabilities in order to plan for and provide educational supportive services -Differentiate methods of instruction and support services for different groups -Enable professionals to communicate efficiently about children and their needs ELIMINATING STEREOTYPES -Recognize that people with disabilities are ordinary people with common goals -Never equate a person with a disability- such as referring to someone as retarded, epileptic. These are simply medical diagnosis -Emphasis abilities not limitations -Avoid negative words that imply tragedy, such as afflicted with, suffer from, victim of -Avoid cute euphemism such as "physically challenged, inconvenienced and differently abled" -Recognize that a disability is not a challenge to be overcome, and don't say that the person succeed in spite of a disability -Use "handicap" to refer to a barrier created by the environment. -Use "disability" to indicate functional limitation that interferes with the person's mental, physical or sensory abilities -Do not refer to a person as bound to or confined to a wheelchair -Promote understanding, respect, dignity, and a positive outlook Exceptionality in Special Education PREVALENCE -Estimating the prevalence of exceptional learners is difficult- vague and vary - difficult to count how many in a population - also on a spectrum (not a specific attribute that is easily to pick up on and difficult to narrow down and pinpoint a specific exceptionality) -There have been considerable changes in estimates of prevalence for certain disabilities -There are high-incidence (most common/popular) and low-incidence categories (mild/less common) Ex. HIGH INCIDENCE - Learning disabilities, communication disorders, emotional disturbances, mild intellectual disorders PROVIDING SPECIAL EDUCATION Levels of Physical integration -In what ways and how much the student differs from average students/population - will influence type of service for exceptionality students -Resources available in the school and community Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) -Where the child with a disability has the most interaction with nondisabled children that is appropriate -The term "inclusion" is sometimes used to describe the placement of a child with disabilities in the general education classroom, with the support the child needs Benefits of Inclusion in General Settings -Raises expectations for student performance (performing at their optimal- raises effort and motivation to do well academically) -Provides opportunities for children with disabilities to learn alongside their nondisabled peers-feels more confident and accepted by their peers -Improves coordination between regular and special educators (using resources and technological tools) -Increases school level accountability for educational results TEACHERS ROLE IN SPECIAL EDUCATION -Relationship between general and special education • Some reformers recommend the elimination of special education and the creation of a unified system • Students "at-risk" for failure in school -Can and should we distinguish between at-risk and exceptionality? Yes- someone who is at risk may not have exceptionality- can be at risk for another reason (below) -Can be academically or socially -Can be at risk for other reasons - Community, home environment, physical health • Vary perspectives on inclusion Expectations for ALL EDUCATORS -Maximum effort to accommodate individual needs -Evaluate academic abilities and exceptionalities -Refer for evaluation (if suspect that one has exceptionality, must get the student to get evaluated/tested to check for diagnosis)-then arrangements can be made to get special resources/education for their needs -Participate in eligibility conferences -Participate in writing individualized education plans -Communicate with parents or guardians for child's interaction and behaviours -Participate in due process hearings -Collaborate with other professionals (social worker, psychologist etc.) Expectations for SPECIAL EDUCATORS SPECIAL EXPERTISE IN: • Academic instruction of students with learning difficulties • Management of serious behaviour problems • Use of technolo
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