Week 2-Collaboration and Participation in Classrooms.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Taniesha Burkes

Week 2- Collaboration and Participation in the Classroom Philosophical and Historical Roots of Integration a) Normalisation *Wolf Wolfensberger (1972) -Articulated the principles of normalisation -People with exceptionalities need to be integrated in to the community (those who do not) b) Deinstitutionalization -Deemphasize segregation of people with disabilities -Deinstitutionalization led to the establishment of many small group homes and other community- based residential facilities -Helped families actually raise their children with exceptionalities c) Self-determination -The ability to make and regulate personal choices -Have similar goals and dreams as anyone else • Person-centred planning: Self-initiated and must not be made by others- can make the decision on their own -academically Full Inclusion of Students with Exceptionalities -All students with exceptionalities: • Attend only general education classrooms • Attend their neighbourhood schools • Are served by general education - go through same learning objectives and assignments -Attend same school as normal students (has pros/cons) SCHOOL INTEGRATION Full inclusion VS. Continuum of Alternative Placements -Least restrictive environment (LRE) chosen from a continuum of placements -Some consider general education classrooms the LRE -Other suggest that a physical placement in the general education classroom does not constitute a "free and appropriate education" Arguments For Inclusion -Labelling people in harmful -Separate special education has been ineffective-students with disability are not able to develop proper skills (socially, academically, emotionally etc.) -People with exceptionalities should be viewed as a minority group -Ethics are more important than empirical evidence (it is unethical to separate people with exceptionalities from other students) Arguments Against Inclusion -Educators and parents are largely satisfied with the continuum of placements -General educators are unable or unwilling to teach students with exceptionalities- not specifically trained to teach those with exceptionalities -The minority argument is flawed-issues are very diverse (those who are African American or aboriginal) -Unwillingness to consider empirical evidence is professionally irresponsible (looking at the causes and observations- cannot fully ignore the evidence and studies) -Available empirical evidence does not support full inclusion -In the absence of data supporting full inclusion, the continuum should be preserved- they become more frustrated because teachers are unable to support their emotional needs -Individuals with exceptionalities have the right to decide which program works best for them Collaboration and Participation in General Education Classrooms 1. Pre-referral teams and response to intervention models Pre-referral Teams (PRTs) • PRTs are groups of professionals who work with general education teachers to help identify individualized strategies for students before a referral for special education evaluation is made Response to Intervention (RTI) • RTI usually provides for three standardized levels of intervention for students having problems, with closely monitored progress before a referral is made 2. Collaborative consultation -Support provided to a general teacher by consultant (special education teacher, psychologist) 3. Co-teaching -Allows for direct involvement of special education teacher in general classroom -Allows for special education delivery to students with exceptionalities without segregation -Working together and conduct lessons together to provide general students and exceptional students with equal learning 4. Curricula and instruction strategies -Cooperative learning -Peer-mediated instruction -Peer tutoring -Class wide peer tutoring (CWPT) -Partial participation 5. Accommodations and adaptations TERMS • Modifications change the standard or the content being learned in some way. • Accommodations are changes in instructions that help a student overcome or work around the disability • Adaptations changes in curricula content or conceptual difficulty or instructional objectives or methods • Assistive technology is “any kind of technology that can be used to enhance the functional independence of a person with a disability” (Family Center on Technology and Disability, 2006, p. 2). Participation in General Assessment of Progress CURRENT TRENDS -Standards-based reforms- not a lot is being done -Use of general curriculum for all students -Participation of students with exceptionalities in large-scale assessments -Assessment accommodations part of IEPs CONTINUING ISSUES -"Testing is useful only if you make the right comparisons for the right reasons" Access to Technology, Risk Factors, Early Intervention & Transition to Adulthood ACCESS TO NEW TECHNOLOGIES Current Trends -Medical advances -Communication technologies (i.e. using ipads for students with autism to engage in academic work) -Universal design Continuing Issues -Medical innovations • Questions whether it can and should be done RISK FACTORS- A Wide range of biological and environmental conditions associated with increased probability for cognitive, social, emotional and physical problems EARLY INTERVENTION - A set of services for a young child and family designed to lessen the impact of disability on the child's development and provide informational, material, and emotional support to the family Types of Risks Environment- child's surroundings and how it affects their development MAJOR BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Prenatal factors- lead to most affect on child *Prematurity is a major biological risk (before 37 weeks born)-did not stay in womb long enough to fully develop MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS a) Influence Prenatal development -Radiation -Neurotoxins (ex. high exposures to mercury) b) Postnatal Environmental risk factors -Lead -Other environmental toxins-may be caused from large plants -Poverty-not getting the same stimulation and nutrients as a child living in a well developed/middle income family -Child maltreatment -any sort of abuse -Accidents-*Most common postnatal risk -School Factors-school performance may be very low- teachers do not have the credentials to teach and have behaviour control -Cuts to social prog
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