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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

FRHD 2270 Lecture 3 - Figure out group contract John Watson (nurture) - Applied classical conditioning to humans - Learning determines who we will be - Famous example is “little Albert” - Little Albert is very unethical - He passed away at a young age; not sure why - Exposed to a rat and hit something loud to scare him so that he became conditioned to be scared of rats - He became fearful of anything fluffy and rat like or teddy bear like - Gong is the conditioned stimulus Contribution - Watson demonstrated that you can teach children anything, including fear Operant Conditioning (nurture)  B.F Skinner o Contribution  Consequences of behaviour determine whether that behaviour is repeated in the future o Skinner focused on how the consequences of a behaviour could lead to that behaviour response being strengthened or weakened o 2 kinds of consequences are influenced Reinforcement - Increases the likelihood of future behaviour - Positive reinforcement o Behaviour is increased bc it is followed by a reward  Ex; chocolate, paychecks - Negative reinforcement o Behaviour is increased by taking away something negative  Ex: clean your room and you don’t have to do the dishes  Ex: remove a grounding when they apologise  Ex: big bang theory – chocolate for Penny To stop reinforcement you have to slowly stop it Punishment - A consequence that decreases the future likelihood that the behaviour will occur Two ways: 1. Suppress a behaviour by imposing something negative or aversive - Ex: don’t clean your room = you do more chores 2. Withholding something positive - Ex: if you don’t clean your room you don’t get to watch T.V “skinner box” – look up online Why do reinforcements work? - Punishment does not explain the desired behaviour o “stop this” or “do that instead” form of learning - Reinforcements explain the desired behaviour Social Cognitive Theory (nurture) - Albert Bandura - Contribution o Children are actively trying to understand what goes on in their world o Not mechanically copying - Children imitate because of rewards and punishments o More likely to repeat if there is a reward o If person is smart, poplar, or talented Self-efficacy - Develops throughout experience - Beliefs about own abilities and talents - Determines if child will imitate others - Ex: believe I can’t sing, less likely to imitate Lady Gaga “bobo doll” experiments – video available – study on aggression – inflatable clown dolls that if shoved they bounce back up - Children are actively thinking about their interactions and environment - Do not blindly imitate behaviour - Children engage in different ways to show aggression September 14 , 2012 Ecological Systems Theory - Brofenbrenner - Contribution 1. Development is influenced by the environment we live and interact in 2. Individuals are active 3. Our biological characteristics also influence our environments example: boys and girls are treated differently in school - Bi-directional influence; each section influences one another  Microsystem o Consists of people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment are closest to them - you can have more than one of them example: parents and siblings  Mesosystem (inter-connected) o What happens in one microsystem will influence the others o Example: bad day at work or school = you’re grouchy at home  Exosystem o Social setting that you might not experience firsthand or indirectly, but still influence development o Example: mother’s work environment  Macrosystem o Subcultures and cultures that the other three systems are embedded in  Broader social and cultural context the child lives in  Attitudes, beliefs and heritage  Chronosystem o All the systems change over time o Not static, but always changing  Examples of changes o The child’s microsystem changes when an older sibling leaves home to attend college o The child’s exosystem changes when a mother leaves an easy low paying job for a more challenging high paying job Bidirectional Theory - We used to think ( and some still do )… PARENT  Child Parent: teaches, manages, controls and disciplines Child: complies, obeys, learns and listens Now, many think.. PARENT  child Parents influence children BUT!! Children also influence parents Bi-directionality (four) 1. Causality (direction of influences) a. Both parents and children can influence one another b. Acknowledge bi-directionality is present in all relationships 2. Context a. Interactions happen in long-term, close relationships b. You have a history with the person you are interacting with i. Ex: parent-child relationship 3. Agency a. Parents and children are active in their interactions b. Equal agency i. “I influence you just as much as you influence me” ii. Allows us to make sense of our environments and feel that we can make changes and choices 4. Power a. Parents and children can be powerful by influencing one another b. Power is unequal in parent-child relationships and both parent and child are in conflict for power c. Example: i. Parent wants child to clean their room, child says no, the child has the power Family guy Example:  Causality – mutually influencing one another  Context – Stewie has a history of interacting with his mother, Lois  Agency – by Lois not reacting she is influencing Stewie and he continues to say her name to try and influence her  Power – Stewie gets Lois to react to what he is doing therefore he has the pow er th September 17 , 2012 Week 3: Genetics, Growth, and Health Heredity Key concepts - Human body has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) o Tiny structures that contain genetic material o Each pair can be different – called alleles o Pairs = same – homozygous o Different - heterozygous - First 22 pairs called autosomes o Same size rd o 23 pair determines sex of the child  XX = girl XY = boy Genotype - Complete set of gene’s - Person’s heredity Phenotype - Genetic instructions with environmental influences - Individuals physical, behavioural and psychological features (height, tanning = manipulating your phenotype) Dominant genes - Expressed - Chemical instructions are followed over recessive genes - Can be seen in both homo and heterozygous Recessive genes - If paired with a dominant gene, will not be expressed - Only expressed when alleles are homozygous (same) Example of Dominant – Recessive Man with attached earlobe and man with a free earlobe attached – recessive free – dominant Woman with widow’s peak and woman with no widow’s peak widow’s peak – dominant no peak – recessive Monozygotic Twins (identical Twins) - Single fertilized egg that split in two - Share 100% of genes Dizygotic Twins (fraternal Twins) - Two separate fertilized eggs by 2 separate sperm - Share 50% of genes Genetic Disorders - Inherited disorders o Recessive/dominant/or sex chromosome o Example: sickle cell dieases, hemophilia o Rare Abnormal number of chromosomes - Extra, missing or damaged - More common - Example: down syndrome, XXX syndrome (females born with 3 X’s) Down syndrome - Abnormal number of chromosomes - Extra 21 chromosomes (autosome) - Carried by Mother’s - Woman in 20’s goes from 1 in 1000, to woman in their 40’s to 1 in 50 - Causes cognitive deficits and developmental delays Physical Features - Head, neck, and nose are smaller - Almond shaped eyes oppose to oval shaped - Hearing, vision and other medical issues Affects learning in different ways - Mild to moderate intellectual impairment - Delays in speech Capable of developing various skills - Slower pace and may be different than a child without DS - Example: feeding, dressing and self-care may take a little longer Early intervention - Benefit from speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises for gross and fine motot skills o Live productive lives well into adulthood - Benefit from special education and attention at school o Many children can integrate well into regular classes at school Video on down syndrome children – deals with the kind of questions you should engage them in to help them How do our genes influence our psychological and behavioural development? 1. Genes depend on our environment a. Reaction range - Genotype produces a range of phenotypes in reaction to the environment where development occurs - Example: 2 children with “avg.” intelligence genotype, but grow up in different environments o I child is enriched and stimulated o I child in impoverished and non-stimulating 2. Heredity and Environment interact - Metaphor: clay and sculpture (taken from textbook) - Genes are expressed or turned on during development example: genes initiate grey hair - Environment can trigger genetic expression - Experiences can determine how and when genes are turned on - Example: stressful events could induce grey hair 3. Genes can influence the environment a child is exposed to - Genotypes can lead people to respond to a child in a certain way - Example: bright and outgoing child vrs. Shy and not so bright child – the outgoing child gets more attention from the teacher - Niche picking – deliberately seek out environments that fits one’s heredity - Develops as we become independent - Example: social child seeks out social situations September 19 – on paper st September 21 , 2012 Picky Eaters Continued… - Duke University o Up to 20% of children below the age of 5 are picky eaters o Some grow up and become selective eating disorder (SED) as adults  Restricting, avoiding, or fearing certain foods o Considered for DSM due out in 2013 Inadequate diet - Amount of food eaten is important to promote adequate growth Causes - Biological predisposition, learned experiences, social exposure, and/or personal sensitivities Create long term problems - Nutritional deficiencies including bone and heart problems - From restricting food intake - Impact quality of life Obesity Canadian Statistics (2004) - 26% between 2-17 yrs. Were overweight o 8% were obsess - Past 25-30 yrs. Numbers of overweight children has doubled Overweight Children - Unpopular - Low self esteem - At risk for high blood pressure - Risk of being overweight as an adult Causes - Nature - Genetically prone to inactivity and low metabolism o Burn calories less rapidly, easier to gain weight Nurture - _____________ encourages bad eating - TV viewing time correlated with obesity - Parents emphasize external cues rather than internal ones to eat o Example: clean your plate mentality - Solutions/ supports o Smaller portion sizes o Provide variety of foods o Lead by example and eat at home - Other suggestions o More fruit and veggies o 2 hrs of screen time or less a day o 1 hr or more of physical activity a day o No sugary beverages Infectious Diseases - Globally, 11 million children age 5 and younger die annually o Pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria and malnutrition - Immunizations and vaccinations has influenced the decline of childhood diseases o 20% of infants and toddlers in North American are not fully immunized - Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2006) o Concerned with HIV & AIDS in children Accidents - Age 1 on, more likely to die from accidents o Motor vehicle accidents in particular o Improper use of seat belts and car seats - Motor Vehicle Safety Act in Canada - Others are drowning, burns or suffocation o Children not properly supervised Childhood Onset Depression Waddell et al. (2007) - Most prevalent mental disorders in Canadian children - Conduct disorder, ______ and depression - 2-4% of children have depression NYU Child Study Center - 1 in every ______ children o School-aged boys and girls are affected equally Depression: Symptoms - Changes in Feelings - May show signs of being o Unhappy, worried, guilty, angry, fearful, helpless, hopeless, and lonely or rejected - ___________ changes o May start to complain of headaches, general aches and pains o Lack of energy or feel tired all the time o Sleeping or eating problems Changes in _________________ - Might say things that indicate low self-esteem, self-dislike or self-__________ - Difficulty __________ or frequently experience negative thoughts - Might even think of suicide September 26 , 2012 ADHD: Characteristics Symptoms of hyperactivity o Fidget and squirm in their seats o Talk nonstop and have difficulty doing quiet tasks/activities o Dash around, touching or playing with anything in sight o Trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time Symptoms of impulsivity - Impatient and interrupt conversations or activities - Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences - Difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turn Causes - Neuropsychiatric disorder (biological) o 3 line of support 1. Ritalin is most commonly prescribed medication a. 70-90% of children show decrease in demanding disruptive, and non complainant behaviours b. High responsiveness to medication 2. Hyperactivity could be inherited in certain families a. Example: ¼ of parents who have a hyperactive child have a history of hyperactivity 3. Brain imaging studies a. Children with ADHD have smaller frontal lobes and smaller brain volume Prevalence - Common in elementary school years o School become more difficult in terms of learning and complexity of what is learnt - Gender differences o More common in boys - More hyperactive and disruptive behaviour o May be overreaction bc/ boys have a greater tendency to rowdiness o Finding that girls tend to be more inattentive type - Girls are also diagnosed with ADHD o Missed a majority of the time bc/ girls show inattentive symptoms - Unnoticed bc/ do not engage in disruptive behaviours like boys - Continues throughout development Treatment - Medication o 70-90% respond to medications o Examples: Ritalin, concerta, Adderall - Only ½ of ADHD children take medications o Adherence and schedule - Parents feel they should not be on these drugs - Behaviour therapy o Teach a child how to monitor their own behaviour o Give oneself praise or rewards for acting in desired way - Clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines can help a child control behaviour o Parents and teachers are key supports Motor development Locomotion - To move about the world o Ex: crawling, standing and walking - Fine motor skills o Smaller movements like grasping, holding and manipulating objects (hands) Dynamic systems theory (DST) - Motor development involves many distinct skills - Organized and reorganized over time to meet demands 1. Differentiation a. Each component skill is mastered alone b. Example: walking – first need posture and balance 2. Integration a. Skills are combined into proper sequence b. Example: walking – requires balance, and posture, stepping, knowing your environment and purpose for movement c. Experience is key to improve motor development d. BUT limited to movements that are trained Motor Skills: 2-3 yrs - Walk rhythmically - Hurried walk changes to run - Jumps, hopps, throws and catches with rigid upper body - Pushes while riding toy with feet, some ability to steer 3-4 yr olds - Walk up and down the stairs, alternate feet but one is a guide - Jumps and hops while flexing upper body - Throws and catches, but still catches ball against their chest - Pedals and steers bikes 4-5 yrs - Runs smoothly; walks up and down stairs with alternating feet - Rides bike rapidly and smooth steering with or without training wheels 5-6 - Increasing running speed - Engage in sideways stepping - Increase throwing speed, mature body throwing and catching 7-12 - Continuous fluid skipping o Vertical jumps, accurately jumps from square to square o More accurate in throwing and kicking o Become coordinated September 28 , 2012 Sex differences Boys – more adept at batting, kicking, dribbling, and catching - Greater muscle mass - 150% greater compared to girls - Develop larger skeletal muscles, hearts and lung capacity - Boys experience a growth spurt at age 14 Girls - More adept at fine motor skills - Example: hand wrting, drawing - More adept at locomotion skills that depend on balance and agility - Example: hopping, skipping - Girls have pubertal growth spurt at age 10-12 years Physical Fitness Promotes - Muscle and bone growth - Cardiovascular health - Lifelong patterns of exercise - Positive effects on mental and physical health How active are Canadian children and adolescents? - Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute (CFLRI) CANPLAY Study - Children say they are active o But this is subjective - Used pedometers to objectively measure children’s physical activiety levels o 2005-2011 o Info on basic activity o # of steps taken Should be around 16000 steps; while the graph shows that all the provinces in Canada are under 12000 - 90 mins should be spent doing vigorous activity aside from your normal walking Boys take more daily steps than girls - 5-19 yrs - Throughout all yrs of study Younger children take more daily steps per day than older teens - Steps significantly decrease with each increasing age group and occurs for both and girls - Throughout all yrs of study CANPLAY (2010/2011) - Children and youth in high income households (example: $100, 000 or greater) take more steps than those between $40, 000- 59,000 income - Children and youth who participate in organized physical activity and sport take, on average, 1600 more daily steps than children who do not participate Challenges to Fitness Challenges - Physical education classes - Less than twice a week, less exercise - Engage in more sedentary activities - Food offered at sporting events Solutions - more physical education classes - Offer physical activities outside of team sport - Get parents involved If the whole family changes then the child will change and benefit October 1 , 2012 th Friday October 12 , 2012  Midterm Piaget: Cognitive Development Basic principles: - Children are scientists o Naturally curious - Make sense of their world o Conduct own understanding - Create their own theories o Some are incomplete - Assimilation o New experiences incorporated into existing theories  Example: dog licking face - Accommodation  Theories are modified based on experience  Example: first encounter with a cat - Equilibrium o Assimilate experiences into existing theories o Comfortable state - Disequilibrium o More accommodation occurs o Causes cognitive discomfort o Replace old theories with new ones, return to equilibrium - Schemes o Mental structures o Organize ways of making sense of experience o Created through equilibrium o Active and always changing Piaget’s Theory - Assumptions o Move through all 4 stages in exact sequence o Can’t skip a stage - Ages are appx. o Could move through stages slower or faster Sensorimotor stage - Birth to 2 yrs - “think” with eyes, ears, and hands and other sensory equipment - Move from simple reflexes to symbolic processing - 6 sub-stages Stage 1 : Basic Reflexes - Birth to 1 month - Example: sucking, grasping and looking Stage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 mnths) - Accidentally produces a pleasing event and tries to recreate it - Example: sucking your thumb Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8) months) - Repeated actions that involve an object - Example: mobile toy Stage 4: Intentional Behaviour (8-12 months) - Means are distinct from an end - Example: father puts hand on toy; baby takes it off and grabs toy; means to an end Stage 5: tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 mnths) - Repeats old actions with new objects - Different outcomes with different objects - Example: shaking objects Stage 6: Symbols (18 months – 2 yrs) - Capacity to use symbols - Example: words and gestures, pretend play Limitations: Object Permanence - Objects continue to exist when out of sight - 4-8 mnths old do not search for hidden objects - When hidden, believe they cease to exist - “out of sight out of mind” 8-12 months (stage 4) - Search and find hidden objects Preoperational Stage: 2-7 yrs - Symbolic representation - Symbols represent objects and events - Examples: words, gestures, make-believe play, drawing, graphs, maps and models Preoperational: Limitations - Egocentrism o Difficulty seeing world from another’s point of view o Example: Piaget’s 3 Mountain Problem *** on exam or quiz o If kids put themselves in the dolls shoes and how they view the mountains; found they would only see from their point of view not the dolls; idea is can they put themselves in their shoes - Centration o Narrow focused thought or tunnel vision - Conservation task o Important characteristics of objects stay the same, despite changes in their physical appearance o Example: numbers, length, mass, liquid, and weight Video – Allison; four years old Water – pours one glass of water into bowl and compares it with cup with same amount in it; but thinks the water in the bowl is less than the cup, when its poured back into the cup she sees it’s the same as the other cup Chips – each have eight chips; white and red - Realizes they are both equal - Takes red chips and gathers them, asks If the amount of chips is the same still, she says no bc one is in a pile the other is layed out - She wasn’t able to master the idea that the amount was still the same but the shape of it changed Why do children make these kinds of errors ? - Reversibility o Ability to conduct steps of a problem in a reverse order - Animistic thinking o Give inanimate objects life and lifelike properties o Attribute own thoughts and feelings to others Concrete operational stage: 7-11 years - Thought becomes o Logical, flexible and organized - Mental operations o Strategies and rules that make thinking systematic and powerful o Example: solve problems and reasons - Rules for thinking more systematic o Example: categories and numbers o Example: mothers and fathers = parents not just people who look after you - Decentration o Change in one aspect (example: height of water) is compensated by change in another (example: width) - Reversibility o Doing problems in reverse  Example: seeing the water returned to original container - Limited to tangible or “concrete” thinking o No abstract thinking October 17 , 2012 Measuring Intelligence: IQ  Stanford Binet Intelligence tests o Ages 2 years to adulthood  Various cognitive and motor tasks o Range from extremely easy to extremely difficult  Items are dependent on child’s age  Examples: o Preschool child may be asked to name pictures of familiar objects or fold paper into shapes o Older child may be asked to define words and solve an abstract problem  Wechsler intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) o 6-16 yrs  Includes other aspects of IQ besides verbal o Practical performance section  Example: ask children to do something more than what was being doing in the Stanford Binet – arrange pictures to put them in order to tell a story or ask them to identify which part of a picture is missing o Produces 3 scores  Verbal, performance, and combined score  Both tests are administered individually o Examiners can ensure that each child is attentive and not anxious during the testing  IQ scores o Assigned based on the number of questions passed compared to the average number passed by children of the same age o Might use a normal distribution to compare performance Picture of normal distribution Do tests work?  IQ scores obtained in childhood predict IQ later in life o Strong relationship between IQ tests from 2 different age points o IQ increases with age  IQ will increase more when parents deliberately train their child’s intellectual and motor skills What Does IQ Predict?  Academic Achievement o Test scores, grade, staying in school  Future Employment o Kids with high IQ are more likely to be successful, but other factors play a role  Family characteristics  Personality  Practical intelligence  Psychological Adjustment o High IQ related to being liked o Low IQ related to aggression / delinquency Is it Nature or Nurture? - Documentary watched – what makes a genius? – watch video Nature vs. Nurture - What do we know? o Research focuses on siblings, in particular identical and fraternal twins o Fraternal twins share 50% of genetic make-up o Identical twins share 100% of genetic make-up o Perfect to explore this debate? Differences in IQ scores: Nature? - Identical twins studies o The closer people are related (share more genes), more highly correlated their IQ’s o Their scores also increase with age o Identical twins have highest correlation, even when reared apart - Adoption Studies o Adopted children’s IQ’s are associated with their biological parents and not their adopted parents o Their scores with their biological parents get stronger as they get older o Correlation is stronger with biological parents  Suggests biology is most important Nurture? - Flynn Effect - IQ’s have increased steadily from one generation to the next - Example: improved education, nutrition, technology - More stimulation contributes to increased IQ o Children from well-organized homes with play materials have high tests scores o Low income children who did not attened preschool lack readiness skills for success in kindergarten - Adoption Studies o Children from disadvantaged backgrounds adopted into highly educated families score higher than their biological mother on IQ tests o Change could be due to enriched and stimulating learning environment SES and Cultural Differences - Children from economically disadvantaged homes score lower than children from economically advantaged homes o European and Asian Canadian families tend to be economically advantaged o Hispanic and African Canadian families tend to be disadvantaged - Stereotype threat o Knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance consistent with the stereotype o Self-fulfilling prophecy  Example: stereotypes about gender and ethnicity o Less likely to do well even if they know they can do well on the test - Questions are culturally specific o Items reflect cultural heritage and environment o Not everyone has the same experiences o Example: a conductor is to an orchestra as a teacher is to what? o Book; school; class; eraser October 22 , 2012 Week 8 0 language development 4 aspects of language  Phonology: speech sounds  Semantics: words and their meanings  Grammar: structure of language  Pragmatics: language is used for effective communication Phonological development - Ability to attend to sound sequences o To produce sounds o Combine them to understand words/ phrases - Development completed by age 5 o Some not acquired until middle childhood o For example: “green house” vs. “greenhouse” - Simplify the pronunciation of adult words o Examples: delete unstressed syllable, “banana” becomes “nana” - Replace hissing sounds with stop consonant sounds o Examples” “sea” becomes “tea”, or “say” becomes “tay” Semantic Development - Study of words and their meanings - Children understand more words than they use - Children say first word at 12 months - Age 6 o Vocabulary of 10,000 words o Learn 5 new words a day - Fast – mapping o Rapid connection of new words to meanings o Cannont consider all meanings for new words o Improves with age - 5 mnths difference o Between comprehension of 50 words (language understood) and production of 50 words (language they use) Sematic: Early Word Production - Types of words in toddler’ 50-word Vocabulary - Object words (66%) o Words children can move - From the “thing world” o Example: doggie, ball, shoe - Includes familiar people o Example: mom - Action words (13%) o Words that describe, demand, or come with an action or that express or demand attention o Example: bye-bye, go - State words (9%) o Words that refer to properties, qualities, or events o Example: all gone, big, dirty, hot, mine - Personal/social words (8%) o Words that express emotional states and social relationships o Example: no, please, ouch, thank-you - Function words (4%) o Words that fill a grammatical function o Example: for, is, what Common word use errors - Under-extension o Define words too narrowly o Example: bear for a special toy for one child - Overextension (1-3 years) o Define words too broadly o Example: car for all vehicles o More common when producing words - Overcome as children refine meanings and more exposure to language - Word coinage (2 years) o Create new words for unknown words o Example: “plant man” for a Gardner - Metaphors o Allow communication in vivid and memorable ways o Use concrete, sensory comparisons  Examples: stomach-ache = “fire engine in my tummy” Word Learning Styles - Referential style o Vocabularies mostly consist of words that name objects, people or actions  Examples: milk, Jo, and up o Expressive Style  Vocabularies include some names but also many social phrases used like a single word  Examples: go away, I want it ** video shown** - Reading is more effective when parents: o Carefully describe pictures  Vocabularies will increase - Ask questions so the child can answer using the targeted word o Example: what or where - Effective because it forces children to identify meanings of new words and practice saying them - Parents important for school age children o Expose children to advanced vocabulary o Instructive and helpful interactions - Children more likely to learn new words when o Participate in activities that force them to understand meanings of new words and use those words - Reading o Written material contains more unfamiliar words than conversational language  Great opportunity to expand vocabulary  Example: books, magazines, newspapers o Children who read frequently tend to have larger vocabularies than children who read less often **video example - Sophie and Elena 2.5 year old twins o Watch the dialogue between the mother and the children o What style of language learning is being emphasized?  Use example from the video o What does their mother do?  Makes connections to other things they have experienced  Engages them  Repeats words  More referential learning October 24 , 2012 Grammatical Development - Rules for sentence structure - Telegraphic Speech (1.5 years) o 2 words utterances o Consists of only words directly relevant to meaning o Focus on high content words and omit smaller less important ones  Omit words like can, the, and to  Example: “get ball” or “mommy shoe” - Grammatical morphemes (2-3 years) o Simple 3-word or longer sentences - Create sentences with adjectives, nouns, verbs and prepositional phrases - Use adult structure - Master grammar categories of their language o Example: “it is broken” - Children master grammar by learning rules o Over-regularization o Apply rules to words that are exceptions to the rules o Children might use a “s” instead of using a plural o Example: two mans instead of two men How do children acquire grammar? - Linguistic perspective o Born with mechanisms to simplify learning grammar - Sematic bootstrapping theory o Children are born knowing that nouns usually refer to people or objects o Verbs are actions o They use this knowledge to infer grammatical rules Evidence for Inborn Mechanism - Brain regions are known to be involved in language processing o Left hemisphere is critical in understanding language - Broca’s area o Necessary for combing words into meaningful sentences o Suggests that we have specialized neural circuits for learning grammar - Only humans learn grammar readily o Neural mechanisms unique to humans o Studies with chimpanzees  Tried to teach sign language  Chimps can only master handful of grammatical rules for 2 word speech  Not comparable to a pre-schoolers level  Trouble expressing complicated ideas that humans learn - Children develop linguistic communication with little or no language input o Deaf children  No input from parents who do not know how to sign  Spontaneously produce gestural or sign communication  Studies have found that deaf children have developed basic communication into a signed language with its own grammar - Critical period for learning language o Birth to 12 years for acquiring language/mastering grammar o Spoken or signed o If not acquired, will never truly master language - Studies of feral or isolated children o May be able to learn few words o But do not understand the use of language o Missing early language experiences **video about Genie – isolated – strapped to chair – no stimulation – beaten if sound made – found when 13 – two years post her critical period ** never able to master language - Grammar is tied to development of vocabulary o Both are part of emerging language system o Learn new words, learn about the meaning as well as the kinds of sentences the word appears in and its position in the sentence o Support from research on bilingual children  Related within but not across languages Supporting Grammar Development - Adults correct mistakes for word meaning o Use on label consistently for objects o Do not provide direct feedback on grammar o Correct indirectly through continuing the conversation with the child  2 ways we can do this Recast - Restructure inaccurate speech into correct forms Expansion - Elaborate on child’s speech and increase its complexity o Example of recast and expansion o Child- “I got new red shoes” o Parent “yes. You got a new pair of red shoes” Other guidelines - Talk with children frequently - Treat as partners in conversations and be interactive Listen - Respond appropriately to what children say - Avoid completing their sentences Make language fun - Use books, songs, jokes and foreign words Pragmatic Development - Rules for appropriate and effective communication o Turn taking by age 2 - Turnabout (3-4 years) o Speaker comments on what was just said - And makes request to get the partner to respond o Example: “yeah, I like soccer too. What’s your favourite position?” Video example of a turnabout - Pay attention to what the parents are doing with Alison (4 years) and Stephan (4.5 years) when recalling a trip to the zoo - What are the parents doing? o Kept asking questions about what they saw o Repeating answers the kids say o Association to things “what kind of pet do you want at home” October 26 , 2012 Pragmatic Development - Illocutionary intent (3 years) o What the speaker means to say o Wording is not perfectly consistent o Understand meaning not directly expressed  Example: “I need a pencil” (get me a pencil) o Speech Registers (3-4 years)  Language adapts to social expectations  Example: differences in talk/body language when speaking to your parents vs. speaking to your friends o Shading (5-9 years)  Change topic of conversation by gradually modifying focus of the conversation - Adjust message to the listener and context o Shatz and Gelamn (1973)  Asked 4 year olds to explain how a toy worked once to a 2 year old and once to an adult  Used longer sentences for adults and simpler and shorter sentences for 2 yr olds o Nadig and Sedivy (2002)  Child describing where to find a toy provided more detailed instructions for listener whose eyes were covered when the toy was hidden Texting and Language Development - Media and language Development o Plester, Wood, and Joshi (2009)  Youth would rather text than talk  Potentially labeled “generation txt”  Journalists take a negative tone toward texting and impacts on language  Exaggerated  No regard for actual text message usage  Evidence to contrary Plester et al. (2009) - Textisms are form of phonetic abbreviations and requires phonological awareness o “2nite” for “tonight” - May help individuals who are poor readers o Freedom from spelling and specific writing systems o Improve motivation without constraints - Little research has focused on pre-teens o 8-11 ye
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