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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

Remembered Self 2 years + Viewing yourself as unique, always existing and living in a world of others. Story telling: similar to autobiographical memory; use stories to further understand themselves; the stories we tell about each other. Enduring Self 4 years + View yourself as persisting over time; ex. realize that a video image of themselves replayed a few minutes after it was filmed is still “me”. THEORY OF MIND Naïve theory of mind: basic theory; understanding that people are mental beings; we can understand our own and other people’s perceptions, feelings, desires and beliefs; constantly revising with our cognitive development. Desire theory of mind: 2-3 year olds; think people always act in ways that are consistent with what they want; they do not understand that less obvious, more interpretive mental states (ex. beliefs) also affect behaviour; simple understand of feelings and desires; ex. person looks in box and is happy, they would think the box has something desirable. Belief-Desire theory of mind: 3-4 years old; sophisticated view where both beliefs and desire determine actions; ex. trying to change your parents belief that you didn’t do anything wrong and you don’t need to be punished; experts use false-belief tests to explore belief-desire reasoning; can recognize that inaccurate beliefs can guide people behaviour and that they can be changed (can understand another person’s perspective); ex. pam and band aids. False belief video: 4 year old can’t understand that pam doesn’t know where the Band-Aids are and assumes she will check pink box; 7 year old can understand. FACTORS AFFECTING THEORY OF MIND Language: allows the mind to reflect on thoughts; have social exchanges and expand on our ideas. Make-believe play: allows context for acting out roles and imaging different thoughts and feelings. Social interactions: talking with family and siblings about thoughts, beliefs and emotions creates mre awareness of false beliefs. Self-Concept Attitudes, behaviours and values; what a person believes makes him or her an unique individual. Early Childhood: talk about observable attributes (preschoolers); possession, physical appearance, preferences and competencies; stat to include emotions in membership in social groups (school). Middle Childhood: talk about positive and negative personality traits; comparison with peers (social comparison); judge abilities, behaviour, personality in relation to others. Video: zoe described what she likes. Stability of Self Esteem 1) Preschoolers – high self esteem - Positive views of themselves - Problems distinguishing between their actual self-esteem and desired self-esteem - Need to decrease that gap, making them feel good doesn’t let them know what they can and can’t actually do. 2) Elementary School – self-esteem declines - Increases in use of social comparison - Helps to adjust SE to more realistic level - Matches opinion of others
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