2 years +
Viewing yourself as unique, always existing and living in a world of others.
Story telling: similar to autobiographical memory; use stories to further understand themselves; the stories we tell
about each other.
4 years +
View yourself as persisting over time; ex. realize that a video image of themselves replayed a few minutes after it was
filmed is still “me”.
THEORY OF MIND
Naïve theory of mind: basic theory; understanding that people are mental beings; we can understand our own and
other people’s perceptions, feelings, desires and beliefs; constantly revising with our cognitive development.
Desire theory of mind: 2-3 year olds; think people always act in ways that are consistent with what they want; they do
not understand that less obvious, more interpretive mental states (ex. beliefs) also affect behaviour; simple understand
of feelings and desires; ex. person looks in box and is happy, they would think the box has something desirable.
Belief-Desire theory of mind: 3-4 years old; sophisticated view where both beliefs and desire determine actions; ex.
trying to change your parents belief that you didn’t do anything wrong and you don’t need to be punished; experts use
false-belief tests to explore belief-desire reasoning; can recognize that inaccurate beliefs can guide people behaviour
and that they can be changed (can understand another person’s perspective); ex. pam and band aids.
False belief video: 4 year old can’t understand that pam doesn’t know where the Band-Aids are and assumes she will
check pink box; 7 year old can understand.
FACTORS AFFECTING THEORY OF MIND
Language: allows the mind to reflect on thoughts; have social exchanges and expand on our ideas.
Make-believe play: allows context for acting out roles and imaging different thoughts and feelings.
Social interactions: talking with family and siblings about thoughts, beliefs and emotions creates mre awareness of false
Attitudes, behaviours and values; what a person believes makes him or her an unique individual.
Early Childhood: talk about observable attributes (preschoolers); possession, physical appearance, preferences and
competencies; stat to include emotions in membership in social groups (school).
Middle Childhood: talk about positive and negative personality traits; comparison with peers (social comparison); judge
abilities, behaviour, personality in relation to others.
Video: zoe described what she likes.
Stability of Self Esteem
1) Preschoolers – high self esteem
- Positive views of themselves
- Problems distinguishing between their actual self-esteem and desired self-esteem - Need to decrease that gap, making them feel good doesn’t let them know what they can and can’t actually
2) Elementary School – self-esteem declines
- Increases in use of social comparison
- Helps to adjust SE to more realistic level
- Matches opinion of others