Week 3 - Genetics, Growth and Health.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

Week Three – Genetics, Growth and Health Key Concepts The human body has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs); these are tiny structures that contain genetic material; each pair are called alleles and each pair can be different. Autosomes: first 22 pairs; all same size; 23 pair determines sex of the child (XX = girl, XY = boy); same homosias, different hedrosias. Genotype: complete set of gene’s; persons heredity. Phenotype: genetic instructions with environmental influences; tan = manipulated phenotype by environment; individuals physical, behavioural and psychological features. Dominant genes: expressed, chemical instructions are followed; can be seen in both homo and heterozygous. Recessive genes: if paired with dominant gene, will not be expressed; only expressed when alleles are homozygous(the same) Monozygotic Twins: identical twins; single fertilized egg that splits in two; share 100% of genes. Dizygotic: fraternal twins; two separate fertilized eggs by two separate sperm; share 50% of genes. Atypical Development Genetic Disorders Inherited: recessive/dominant/or sex chromosome; rare. Abnormal number of chromosomes: extra, missing or damaged; more common; ex. downsyndrome, XXX syndrome. DOWNSYNDROME st Causes: abnormal number of chromosomes; extra 21 chromosome (autosome); carried by mother’s; 20 year old mother – 1 in 1000, 40 year old mother – 1 in 50; causes cognitive deficits and developmental delays. Physical features: head, neck and nose are smaller; almond shaped eyes; hearing, vision and other medical issues. Effects: Learning – mild to moderate intellectual impairment; delays in speech; capable of developing various skills (slower pace and may be different than other children when it comes to feeding, and dressing). Supporting Children with DS Early intervention: speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercise for gross and fine motor skills will allow them to live productive lives well into adulthood; benefits from special education and attention at school; many children can integrate into regular classes at school. GENES: 1) Genes depend on environment - Reaction range: genotype produces a range of phenotypes in reaction to the environment where development occurs; ex. children with same intelligence but different environments, one will grow to be smart due to stimulating environment. 2) Heredity and Environment - Metaphor: clay and sculpture - Genes are expressed or turned on during development; ex. genes initiate grey hair. - Environment can trigger genetic expression; experiences can determine how and when genes are turned on; ex. stress can induce grey hair. 3) Genes can influence environment child is exposed to - Genotype can lead people to respond to child in a certain way; ex. bright and outgoing child vs shy not so bright child. - Niche picking: deliberately seeking out environment that fits ones heredity; develops as we become independent; ex. social child seeks out social situations. 4) Environments make children within a family different - Non shared environmental influences; environment affects each child in a unique way; may explain differences in siblings; ex. parents more affectionate with one child; high grade standard with one child, not the other; also consider environments outside of parents. GROWTH Cephalocaudal: head to tail; motor control of head Proximodistal: center outward; head, trunk and arm comes before control of arms and legs; birth to 1 year: control comes before coordination of hands and fingers; st head and trunk grow faster then legs; 1 year – prenatal: chest and internal organs -> arms and legs -> adolescence: legs grow most rapidly, accounting for hands and feet; infancy-childhood; infancy-childhood: 60% of height growth. arms and legs grow faster than hands and feet. Secular growth trend: changes in physical development from one generation to the next; ex. children are taller than previous generation; may result from better health and nutrition. Sleep - 80% of growth hormone is secreted while children sleep; secreted from pituitary gland and triggers muscle and bone growth - Sleep less as we get older: o 12 hours at age 3 o 10 hours at age 7 o 8 hours at age 12 - Lack of or inconsistent sleep affects cognitive processes and adjustment in school (pay less attention in class, aggression, less sleep high BMI); use consistent bedtime routine to “wind down”. Nutrition - First two years of life are crucial because brain and body are growing rapidly; 25% of caloric intake is needed for organ and body growth - Preschoolers grow slower than infants and toddlers; need to eat less and watch intake, 1500-1700c - School age children need to eat more to support growth and activities; 2400 calories per day Challenges: 1) Eating a balanced diet: preschoolers like junkfood 2) Picky eaters: preschool years; solutions – allow and encourage choices in food but don’t force children to eat them; never use food as rewards. Malnutrition - 1 in 3 children under 5 years (globally); small for their age, shorter; lower intelligence; motor and attention impairments
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