Week 4 - Perceptual and Motor Development.docx

4 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

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Week Four – Perceptual and Motor Development Perception - What develops in infancy and continues o Taste, smell, touch, seeing/perceiving objects - Other areas of understanding develop in middle childhood Attention  How we select information  Pay attention when interested, not when uninterested o E.g. boring lectures  Show orienting response o For strong and unfamiliar stimulus o Fix your eyes, startles you, heart rate  E.g. sound of a car back-firing  How we select information  Pay attention when interested, not when uninterested o E.g. boring lectures  Show orienting response o For strong and unfamiliar stimulus o Fix your eyes, startles you, heart rate  E.g. sound of a car back-firing Habituation  Become accustomed to a stimulus  Orienting response disappears after repeated presentations  Attention is selective o E.g. Moving to a house by the highway—all you hear for the first bit is the noise of the traffic but after you grow accustomed to it  Habituation is associated with intelligence o The more you are able to ignore things at a quicker rate than another person (the more you can focus on a specific thing) may have something to do with mechanics of brain Development of Attention  1 year olds o Easily distracted, less focused (everything is new and exciting)  3.5 year olds o Less distracted, more concentration  8-10 year olds o Huge improvements  E.g. Older children stay engaged longer watching TV – habituating to everything in the background and focusing on the program Improving Attention  Draw attention to the relevant information and less attention to irrelevant o Ex. Closing classroom doors to eliminate competing and workspaces o Ex. Clear off unneeded objects from desks and workspaces Problems with Attention  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) o Common childhood disorder o Child shows both a significant problem in 2 areas  Focusing their attention  Physical hyperactivity ADHD  3 types of ADHD o ADHD hyperactive and impulsive type  high level of energy o ADHD inattentive type  inability to sustain attention  less likely to act out and have difficulties with friends  sit quietly, but not paying attention  may go unnoticed o ADHD combined  Most common  Child meets the criteria for both the hyperactive/impulsive and the inattentive type  Diagnostic Considerations o Situations or health conditions may cause temporary behaviours that seem like ADHD  Medical conditions (i.e. seizures)  Hearing or vision problems  Learning disabilities  Mental health issues (i.e. Anxiety)  Sudden life changes (i.e. Divorce)  Different from non ADHD Kids o Diagnoses is difficult and mislabeling occurs  Many children are inattentive or overactive  Normal part of development  ADHD children have a difficult time when compared to normal children  Hard time completing boring and repetitive tasks  Less able than other children of the same age to control their impulses ADHD Characteristics  Symptoms of inattention o Easily distracted, miss details, or forget things o Difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task o Become bored with a task after only a few minutes (unless doing something enjoyable)  Trouble completing homework assignments and loose things needed to complete things ADHD Characteristics Symptoms of Hyperactivity: - Fidget and squirm in their seats - Talk nonstop and have difficulty doing quiet tasks and activities - Dash around, touching or playing with anything in sight - Trouble sitting still during dinner, school and story time. Symptoms of Impulsivity: - Impatient and interrupt conversations of activities - Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint and act without regard for consequences - Difficulty waiting for things that they want or waiting their turn. No child is the same; everyone is different in different ways. Causes Neuropsychiatric disorder (biological) 1) Ritalin – most commonly prescribed medication; 70-90% of children show decrease in demanding, disruptive and noncompliant behaviours; high responsiveness to medication; supports that the cause is biol
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