Week 5 & 6 - Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

Week 5/6 – Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills MEMORY Memory operates using: Brain structures: Hippocampus and amygdale – initial storage of memories (6 months) Frontal cortex - retrieving of stored memories (2 years Strategies: growing knowledge of information, develop better strategies over time. Storing Strategies Memory strategies: techniques or activities that improve remembering; begin in pre-school (look and touch objects you need to remember); elementary school uses more powerful strategies. Rehearsal (7-8 years): repeating information that must be remembered; powerful but basic; ex. Phone numbers Organization: structure material to be remembered so related information is placed together. Elaboration: creating a relationship between items to help remember; embellishing information to make it more memorable; can be verbal or visual. Chunking: organizing related items into one meaningful group; improves working memory capacity (more information can be held); over time, this creates domain or content knowledge (history). Evaluating Memory Meta-memory: informal understanding of memory. 1) Diagnosing problems accurately 2) Monitoring the effectiveness of a strategy Meta-cognitive knowledge: Knowledge and awareness of cognitive processes: develops during school years Cognitive self-regulation: identify goals, selective effective strategies and monitoring (characteristics of successful students). How Do I Remember? Recognition: something that is familiar, similar/already experienced; a stimulus has to be presented; easy and can achieve adult levels in preschool. Recall: remember something that is no longer there; 2-4 year olds only recall parts, 10 year olds recall more; language improves recall. Reconstruction: recreate by selecting and reinterpreting information; condense, integrate and add information (ex. Relaying a story); complex and meaningful material. Fuzzy Trace Theory: experience can be stored exactly (verbatim) or in terms of their basic meaning (gist); 11 year olds and adults use gist more; remember critical words that were not present. Types of Memory Autobiographical: memories of a significant events and experiences that allows us to relate to others; parents facilitate by encouraging children to converse; use specific details to teach important features and organization of events; yes or no questions create less extensive memories. Memory and Eyewitness Testimony Repeated questioning: the more times you ask a question different ways, the more confused children wi
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