Week 5/6 – Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills
Memory operates using:
Hippocampus and amygdale – initial storage of memories (6 months)
Frontal cortex - retrieving of stored memories (2 years
Strategies: growing knowledge of information, develop better strategies over time.
Memory strategies: techniques or activities that improve remembering; begin in pre-school (look and touch objects you
need to remember); elementary school uses more powerful strategies.
Rehearsal (7-8 years): repeating information that must be remembered; powerful but basic; ex. Phone numbers
Organization: structure material to be remembered so related information is placed together.
Elaboration: creating a relationship between items to help remember; embellishing information to make it more
memorable; can be verbal or visual.
Chunking: organizing related items into one meaningful group; improves working memory capacity (more information
can be held); over time, this creates domain or content knowledge (history).
Meta-memory: informal understanding of memory.
1) Diagnosing problems accurately
2) Monitoring the effectiveness of a strategy
Knowledge and awareness of cognitive processes: develops during school years
Cognitive self-regulation: identify goals, selective effective strategies and monitoring
(characteristics of successful students).
How Do I Remember?
Recognition: something that is familiar, similar/already experienced; a stimulus has to be presented; easy and can
achieve adult levels in preschool.
Recall: remember something that is no longer there; 2-4 year olds only recall parts, 10 year olds recall more; language
Reconstruction: recreate by selecting and reinterpreting information; condense, integrate and add information (ex.
Relaying a story); complex and meaningful material.
Fuzzy Trace Theory: experience can be stored exactly (verbatim) or in terms of their basic meaning (gist); 11 year olds
and adults use gist more; remember critical words that were not present.
Types of Memory
Autobiographical: memories of a significant events and experiences that allows us to relate to others; parents facilitate
by encouraging children to converse; use specific details to teach important features and organization of events; yes or
no questions create less extensive memories. Memory and Eyewitness Testimony
Repeated questioning: the more times you ask a question different ways, the more confused children wi