week 7 - intelligence.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

Week 7 – Intelligence Charles Spearman G - Took items on standard intelligence tests and looked at the relationship between them - Test items measuring different abilities are all related; general or “g” intelligence underlies them. Cattel Fluid intelligence: basic information processing skills: processing speed, working memory capacity and ability to detect relationships; more influenced from brain than environmental influences. Crystalized intelligence: skills that depend on knowledge that we have accumulated; shared primarily by our skills; ex. vocabulary, general information and math problems. 3 Stratum Theory: a more recent and comprehensive account of intelligence; at the top is general intelligence (broad factors are made up of more specific factors or narrow abilities/skills). Gardner From child development, studies of damaged people and exceptionally talented individuals; he proposed that we have intelligence in seven different areas; our abilities in these different areas are distinct. 1) Linguistic: knowing the meaning of words; having the ability to use words to understand new ideas; using language to convey ideas to others (poet, author) 2) Spatial: perceiving objects accurately; imagine the appearance of an object before and after its made (engineer, sculptor) 3) Logical-mathematical: understand relations among objects, actions, ideas and mathematical operations; ex. mathematicians. 4) Musical: understanding and producing sounds varying in pitch, rhythm and emotional tone; ex. pianist, composer 5) Body kinesthetic: using one’s body in differentiated ways; athletes. 6) Naturalistic: recognize and distinguish member of a group or species and describe their relationships; ex. biologist 7) Interpersonal: identifying different moods, feelings, motivations, and intentions in others; works effectively with outs (ex. educator, sales people). 8) Intrapersonal: understand oneself: emotions, fears, motivations, strengths and weaknesses; entrepreneurs. 9) Existential: considers “ultimate issues” such as the purpose of life and the nature of death; philosopher. Emotional Intelligence (EI) Ability to use one’s own and others emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily; several different components: perceive emotions accurately both in others and oneself, regulate our emotions; people who have high EI tend to have high scores on traditional IQ tests, have high self-esteem and are more sociable. Theory of Successful Intelligence Sternberg defines intelligence as using one’s abilities skillfully to achieve one’s personal goals; can be short or long term goals; using one skill defines successful intelligence; we use 3 different kinds of abilities to achieve personal goals. 1) Analytic ability – analyzing problems and generating different solutions; ex. you want to put new songs on your iPod but it isn’t working, what do you do? Think about different solutions. 2) Creative ability – dealing adaptively with new situations and problems; ex. iPod is broken and you have nothing to listen to on your way to work, what will you do? 3) Practical ability – knowing what solution or plan will actually work; ex. you decide that the best choice is to search the internet for a way to fix the iPod; problems can be solved in different ways but in reality only one solution may be practical. Measuring IQ Stanford Binest Intelligence Tests: age 2 years to 85+ - Various cognitive and motor tasks; range from extremely easy to extremely difficult; items that are dependent on child’s skill; ex. preschool children may be asked to name pictures of familiar objects or fold paper into shapes. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III): age 2 - __ - Includes other aspects of IQ besides verbal; practical skill performance section (ask children to arrange pictures to put them in order to tell a story). - Produces three scores: verbal, performance and combined score. Both tests are administered individually; examiners can ensure that each child is attentive and not unmotivated during the test; IQ scores are assigned based on the number of questions passed compared to the average number passed by children of the same age; might use a normal distribution to compare performance. Do they work? IQ scores obtained in childhood predict IQ later in life; strong relationship between IQ tests from two different age points (IQ increases with age); IQ will increase more when parents deliberately train their child’s intellectual and motor skills. What does IQ predict? Academic Achievement: test scores, grades, staying in school. Future Employment: kids with high IQ are more likely to be successful but other factors may play a role; family characteristics, practical intelligence. Psychological Adjustment: high IQ related to being liked; Low IQ related to aggression and delinquency. NATURE VS NUTURE - Research focuses on siblings in particular identical and fraternal twins - Fraternal twins share 50% of genetic make up - Identical twins share 100% of genetic make up Differences in IQ scores: NATURE Identical twin studies: the closer people are related (share more genes), more positively correlated their IQs; their scores also increase with age; identical twins have positive correlation even when reared apart. Adoption studies: adopted childrens IQ’s are associated with their biological parents not their adoptive parents; their scores with their biological parents get strong as they get older; correlation is stronger with biological parents (suggests biology is most i
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