Week 7 – Intelligence
- Took items on standard intelligence tests and looked at the relationship between them
- Test items measuring different abilities are all related; general or “g” intelligence underlies them.
Fluid intelligence: basic information processing skills: processing speed, working memory capacity and ability to detect
relationships; more influenced from brain than environmental influences.
Crystalized intelligence: skills that depend on knowledge that we have accumulated; shared primarily by our skills; ex.
vocabulary, general information and math problems.
3 Stratum Theory: a more recent and comprehensive account of intelligence; at the top is general intelligence (broad
factors are made up of more specific factors or narrow abilities/skills).
From child development, studies of damaged people and exceptionally talented individuals; he proposed that we have
intelligence in seven different areas; our abilities in these different areas are distinct.
1) Linguistic: knowing the meaning of words; having the ability to use words to understand new ideas; using
language to convey ideas to others (poet, author)
2) Spatial: perceiving objects accurately; imagine the appearance of an object before and after its made (engineer,
3) Logical-mathematical: understand relations among objects, actions, ideas and mathematical operations; ex.
4) Musical: understanding and producing sounds varying in pitch, rhythm and emotional tone; ex. pianist,
5) Body kinesthetic: using one’s body in differentiated ways; athletes.
6) Naturalistic: recognize and distinguish member of a group or species and describe their relationships; ex.
7) Interpersonal: identifying different moods, feelings, motivations, and intentions in others; works effectively with
outs (ex. educator, sales people).
8) Intrapersonal: understand oneself: emotions, fears, motivations, strengths and weaknesses; entrepreneurs.
9) Existential: considers “ultimate issues” such as the purpose of life and the nature of death; philosopher.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Ability to use one’s own and others emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily; several different
components: perceive emotions accurately both in others and oneself, regulate our emotions; people who have high EI
tend to have high scores on traditional IQ tests, have high self-esteem and are more sociable.
Theory of Successful Intelligence
Sternberg defines intelligence as using one’s abilities skillfully to achieve one’s personal goals; can be short or long term
goals; using one skill defines successful intelligence; we use 3 different kinds of abilities to achieve personal goals.
1) Analytic ability – analyzing problems and generating different solutions; ex. you want to put new songs on your
iPod but it isn’t working, what do you do? Think about different solutions.
2) Creative ability – dealing adaptively with new situations and problems; ex. iPod is broken and you have nothing
to listen to on your way to work, what will you do?
3) Practical ability – knowing what solution or plan will actually work; ex. you decide that the best choice is to
search the internet for a way to fix the iPod; problems can be solved in different ways but in reality only one
solution may be practical.
Stanford Binest Intelligence Tests: age 2 years to 85+
- Various cognitive and motor tasks; range from extremely easy to extremely difficult; items that are dependent
on child’s skill; ex. preschool children may be asked to name pictures of familiar objects or fold paper into
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III): age 2 - __
- Includes other aspects of IQ besides verbal; practical skill performance section (ask children to arrange pictures
to put them in order to tell a story).
- Produces three scores: verbal, performance and combined score.
Both tests are administered individually; examiners can ensure that
each child is attentive and not unmotivated during the test; IQ
scores are assigned based on the number of questions passed
compared to the average number passed by children of the same
age; might use a normal distribution to compare performance.
Do they work? IQ scores obtained in childhood predict IQ later in
life; strong relationship between IQ tests from two different age
points (IQ increases with age); IQ will increase more when parents
deliberately train their child’s intellectual and motor skills.
What does IQ predict?
Academic Achievement: test scores, grades, staying in school.
Future Employment: kids with high IQ are more likely to be successful but other factors may play a role; family
characteristics, practical intelligence.
Psychological Adjustment: high IQ related to being liked; Low IQ related to aggression and delinquency.
NATURE VS NUTURE
- Research focuses on siblings in particular identical and fraternal twins
- Fraternal twins share 50% of genetic make up
- Identical twins share 100% of genetic make up Differences in IQ scores: NATURE
Identical twin studies: the closer people are related (share more genes), more positively correlated their IQs; their scores
also increase with age; identical twins have positive correlation even when reared apart.
Adoption studies: adopted childrens IQ’s are associated with their biological parents not their adoptive parents; their
scores with their biological parents get strong as they get older; correlation is stronger with biological parents (suggests
biology is most i