February 5, 2013 (chapters 12 and 13).docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Page 1 of 4 February 5, 2013 (chapters 12 and 13) FRHD 3150  This stuff isn't on midterm #1  Punishment (eliminating behaviour) (must occur immediately after a behaviour) o Positive punishment  Aversive stimuli (stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behaviour causes that behaviour to decrease in frequency)  Ie. Immediate consequences of touching a hot stove o Negative punishment  Removing a reward o A punishment is for decreasing a behaviour o Deterrent: sending a person to prison (not immediate)  Reinforcement and punishment o Positive reinforcement= reward o Negative reinforcement= removing aversive o Positive punishment= aversive stimuli o Negative punishment= removing reward  Understanding the terms o Reinforcements increase the likeliness that a behaviour will increase o Punishments increase the likelihood that a behaviour will decrease o Negative is the absence of a stimuli o Positive is the presence of a stimuli o Ask yourself:  Am I attempting to decrease or increase the behaviour?  Am I giving the client something or taking something away?  Direct and indirect effect o Just like reinforcement, punishment can have a:  Direct acting effect (given immediately)  Indirect acting effect (noted immediately but given after a delay); ie. Person is caught on camera speeding through an intersection and gets a ticket in the mail a week later  Four types of punishments o Pain-inducing punishers  Involve pain or discomfort (could just be uncomfortable)  Positive punishment  Unconditioned punishers: are punishing without prior learning  Ie. Spanking, pinches, electrical shock o Reprimands  Aversive verbal stimuli  Positive punishment  Conditioned punisher: stimulus that is a punisher as a result of having been paired with another punisher  In some cases, the effectiveness of reprimands has been increased by pairing them with other punishers  Ie. Parent saying "no! that was bad!"; pairing reprimands with water-mist spray to suppress self-injurious behaviour o Time-outs  Moving individual from reinforcing context to one with less reinforcement Page 2 of 4  Negative punishment  2 types  Exclusionary time-out  Move individual into context with very little to no reinforcement for a short period of time  Non exclusionary time-out  Individual is only allowed to take part in some of the reinforcing stimuli available in their environment  Ie. Child in classroom wore a ribbon that was removed for a short time when a child was disruptive; when not wearing the ribbon, the child was not allowed to participate in classroom activities and was ignored by teacher  Ashley Smith  Was in the prison system from a very young age  Self-harmed and were afraid she was going to harm other people  Had mental health problems  Solitary confinement o Response cost  Removal of a specified amount of reinforcement immediately following behaviour  Negative punishment  Frequent in token economies  Not to be confused with extinction  Reinforcer taken away following an undesirable response  Ie. Speeding ticket, parking ticket (indirect because your money is not immediately taken away), library fine o Effective punishment  Vary the punisher Emphasize the behaviour not the "behaver"   Immediate punishment (direct effect) is more effective than delayed punishment (indirect)  Always give them the opportunity to get it back  Punish in the area in which they misbehave  Factors influencing the effectiveness of punishment o Conditions for a desirable alternative response  Maximally effective to increase some desirable response that will compete with the undesirable behaviour to be eliminated o Cause of the undesirable behaviour D  Try and identify and eliminate the discriminative stimulus (S )  Try and identify and eliminate existing reinforcers that are maintaining the undesirable behaviour  Minimizing the causes of undesirable behaviour while maximizing the conditions for a desirable alternative behaviour may cause desirable behaviour to compete so strongly with the undesirable behaviour that it is greatly reduced or completely suppressed without the use of punishment o The punishing stimulus  Mild punishers produced greater response suppression when access to a reinforcer for desir
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