February 12, 2013 (chapters 14 and 15).docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Page 1 of 4 February 12, 2013 (chapters 14, 15) FRHD 3150  Chapter 14  Operant conditioning o Behaviour can be modified by its consequences (reinforcements/ punishments) o Process of strengthening a behaviour by reinforcing it or weakening it by punishing it o Operant behaviours= behaviours that operate on the environment to generate consequences and are in turn controlled by those consequences  Ie. Putting gas in car, asking for directions, writing an exam o Respondent behaviours= behaviours elicited by prior stimuli and aren't affected by their consequences  Ie. Salivating when smelling dinner cooking, feeling frightened when watching a scary movie  Respondent conditioning (Pavlon conditioning, classical conditioning) o If a stimulus is followed closely in time by an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR) then the previously neutral stimulus will also tend to elicit that UR in the future o Aka classical conditioning o Pavlov's dogs o Involves repeated pairings to create conditioned reinforces o Unconditioned reflex  Stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning o Unconditioned stimulus  Elicits a response without prior learning or conditioned o Unconditioned response  Response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned reflex  Stimulus- response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response because of prior respondent conditioning o Conditioned stimulus  Stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits that response o Conditioned response  Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus o Ie. Response to an F on an exam o See page 169 and 170 for examples  Factors influencing respondent conditioning o The more the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the more likely is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR  Ie. If a child was frightened several times by the loud barking of a dog, the sight of the dog will elicit a stronger fear than if the child had been scared by the dog only once o Stronger conditioning occurs if CS precedes the US by about 1/2 a second rather than by a longer time or rather than following the US o A CS acquires a more likely ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US Page 2 of 4 o When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is more consistently associated with the US is the more likely to become a strong CS  Ie. Children seeing a dark cloud and lightening followed by loud claps of thunder and seeing dark clouds where there is no lightning or thunder; will become stronger fear of lightning o Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak  Ie. Child will acquire a stronger fear of lightning if the lightning is exceptionally bright and the thunder is exceptionally loud than if either or both are relatively weak  Strength of respondent conditioning o More pairings creates stronger conditioning o 1/2 second in pairing is ideal o Discriminate pairings  Higher order pairing o A process in which conditioned stimuli (ie. Bell) are paired with new unconditioned stimuli to produce the same behaviour (salivation) o First order (see page 171 for explanation, diagram on page 172)  Food--> salivation  Food + bell--> salivation  Food + bell--> salivation  Food + bell--> salivation  Bell--> salivation o Second order  Bell--> salivation  Bell + light--> salivation  Bell + light--> salivation  Bell + light--> salivation  Light--> salivation  Eliminating the conditioned response o Respondent extinction  Present CS (bell) but withhold Food, eventually CS loses capability of eliciting response  Ie. Many of our fears we acquire during childhood (fear of dogs, fear of dentist) undergo respondent extinction as we grow older o Counter conditioning  CS will lose its ability to elicit a CR if that CS is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with the CR  Ie. Child who acquired a fear of the sight of dogs. The child likes playing with a friend who has become a CS eliciting feelings of happiness as a CR and the friend has a friendly dog who
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