March 5, 2013 (chapters 16-19).docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Page 1 of 4 March 5, 2013 (chapters 16-19) FRHD 3150  Midterm covers chapters 12-22; milgram study (obedience); zimbardo video; guest lecture on parenting programs; article by lance and collegues (access through course reserve) o About 20 multiple choice and 15 marks short answer o March 12, 2013  Chapter 16  Generalization o Stimulus generalization  Things in the environment that stimulate people  Behaviour becomes more probable in the presence of a new stimulus as a result of having being reinforced in the presence of a different stimulus previously  May occur because of:  Physical similarity  Stimuli in common-element class  Stimuli in equivalence class; same classification but they probably look different (dogs can look very different from each other but are in the same class) o Response generalization  A behaviour is more probable in the presence of a stimulus as a result of another behaviour having been strengthened in the presence of the same or a similar stimulus  May occur because of:  Considerable physical similarity of responses (ie. Pluralizing words; moving from singular to plural)  Minimal physical similarity of responses  Functionally equivalent responses  Programming o 2 important situations  Training situation (where you get used to training; ie training in a swimming pool and doing a race in a lake)  Target situation (to where we want the behaviour to generalize) o The more physically similar the training and the target situations are the more stimulus generalization will occur  Programming: stimulus generalization o Train in the target situation when possible o Programs common stimuli  If not in the target situation use stimuli from that situation o Use multiple stimuli to encourage generalization  Programming: response generalization o Train a variety of responses o Allow for and reward new/ creative responses that are appropriate  Maintenance o Create natural rewards to ensure behaviour continues to be reinforced o Teach others (ie. Parents) to reinforce appropriate behaviours o Use intermittent schedules of reinforcement o Give control to the individual  Chapter 17 and 19  Society trains us! Page 2 of 4  Rules o When there is contingency between a behaviour and a consequence o Can function as behavioural cues or prompts  Reminder of the rule can change behaviour because the rule has already been learned (experiencing the consequence again is unnecessary  ie. "don't speed here or you'll get a ticket o "partial rules"  A prompt that refers to part of the rule to act as a reminder  Ie. "don't speed here  Can occur naturally  Ie. If you don't get enough sleep you'll be tired  Can be created  Ie. If you go to bed on time you'll get a story o Use rules whenever you can!  Put the behavioural program into words  Explain which behaviour will have consequences and what those consequences will do  Explain when the consequences will occur (direct versus indirect acting effects) o Rules are especially effective when:  You need to change behaviour quickly (ie. When a child tries to stick their fingers in an electrical socket)  Consequences are delayed (indirect acting effects)  Natural consequences are highly intermittent  Low contingency between behaviour and consequence in natural environment (ie. Speeding tickets)  Consequence is sever Contingency shaped vs rule shaped  o Contingency shaped behaviour  Learned from your environment/ context over trial and error  Requires more immediacy  Requires greater learning time  May be context specific o Rule shaped behaviour  Learned through contingency of rule  Learned more quickly (sometimes immediately)  Requires less immediacy- can make use of indirect-acting effects  Effective rules o Effective rules have:  Specific descriptions of the behaviour
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