Chapter 11.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 11 Getting A New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavioral Chaining 4/18/2013 1:12:00 PM Behavioral Chain- also called stimulus-response chain, is a consistent sequence of stimuli and response that occur closely to each other in time and where the last response is followed by a reinforcement -In a behavioral chain, each response produces a stimulus that serves as an S D for the next response (and a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response) -The stimulus-response connections are the “links” that hold the chain together -If any response is so weak that it failed to be evoked by the S D preceding it, the next S D will not be produced and the rest of the chain will not occur -The reinforcer at the end of the chain maintains the stimulus in the chain as effective SDs for the responses that follow them (as will be described later, as effective conditioned reinforcers for the responses that lead them) -Not all behavioral sequences are behavioral chains -It is not made up of a consistent series of stimuli and responses that occur closely in time and for which each stimulus (except the last) is an S D for the next response Methods for Teaching A Behavioral Chain -The 3 major methods for teaching a behavioral chain are:  1. Total-Task Presentation Method o a person attempts all of the steps from the beginning to the end of the chain on each trial, and continues with total task trials until that person learns the chain o Prompting is provided at each step as needed, and a reinforcer follows the correct completing of the last step  2. Backward Chaining o gradually constructs the chain in a reverse order from that in which the chain is performed o eg. used in teaching various dressing, grooming, work, and verbal behaviors to individuals with developmental disabilities o When one uses backward chaining, the reinforcement of the last step in the presence of the appropriate stimulus, over trials, establishes that stimulus as a discriminative stimulus for the last step and as a conditioned reinforcer for the next-to-last step o The power of the positive reinforcer that is presented at the end of the chain is transferred up the line to each S D as it is added to the chain o Theoretical advantage of always having a built-in conditioned reinforcer is that it strengthens each new response that is added to the sequence  3. Forward Chaining o teaches initial step of the sequence first, then teaches/links together the first and second steps, then the first three steps, and so on until the entire chain is acquired -Partly because backward chaining resembles a reversal of the natural order of things, foreword chaining and total-task presentation are used more often in everyday situations by people not trained in behavior modification -Total Task Presentation- has several practical advantages over the other chaining formats for teaching people with developmental disabilities  1. Requires the instructor to spend less time in partial assembly or disassembly to prepare the task for training  2. Appears to focus on teaching response topography and response sequence simultaneously, which produces results more quickly  3. Appears to maximize the learner’s independence early in training, especially if some steps are already familiar -Individuals who do not have developmental disabilities:  For simple tasks with small number of steps, total-task presentation is the method of choice  For more complex tasks, either backward or forward chaining is more effective  Using backward chaining to teach certain tasks may be more practical o eg. Driving instructions Chaining Compared With Fading and Shaping -Behavioral chaining, fading and shaping are sometimes called gradual change procedures  each involve progressing gradually through a series of steps to produce anew behavior. new stimulus control over a behavior, or a new sequence of stimulus-response steps Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining 1. The Task Analysis: -for maximum effectiveness of behavioral chaining, the behavioral sequence but me broken down into manageable components, and the proper order of the components must be maintained to facilitate training -Selection of chaining steps (components) is subjective -The components should be simple enough to be learned without great difficulty -Components sho
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