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Food Agricultural and Resource Economics
FARE 1300
Julio Mendoza

Fare*1300 Food, Hunger and Poverty 2013 Professor: Julio Mendoza, office hours by apt. Course Objectives • Nature of malnutrition, under nutrition and food insecurity • Understanding of the causes of under nutrition and food insecurity insecurityly assess alternative approaches to reducing under nutrition and food • Critical analysis of development issues • Skills in use of simple economic frameworks • Skills in data access and analysis The Hunger Problem: Undernourishment  Starvation  Famine Undernourishment pertains to a lack of sufficient nutrients – minerals, vitamins, proteins, calories and general nutritional energy inputs in order to sustain an active, functioning body. 13% of the world‟s population suffers from malnutrition. Starvation implies long-term depletion and lack of energy inputs from food sources that results in the body‟s self-consumption of fats, muscle mass and tissues. Organs such as the kidneys, liver and endocrine system often ceases to function regularly or at all People can die from having such little energy through starvation. Famine refers to widespread hunger over populations and time. Males normally carry greater masses of natural weight, and therefore suffer less-frequently and abruptly from starvation and resulted famine than do pregnant or sick women, and significantly, infants and children. In an average day, 24 000 people die from hunger. The global response is brought on by: - Overseas Development Assistance (ODA)… a small % of GDP actually is given to assistance - Trade - Peace-keeping - Environmental protection - Migration - Etc. … Fare*1300 Food, Hunger and Poverty 2013 Different Approaches to the Hunger Problem… Pessimistic Approach “Fighting Famine” Ethiopia: green landscape, but nothing is growing so people are hungry Food is decreasing consistently and rapidly People are barely surviving on their incomes domestically, and in response to the global economy Drought is a huge uncontrollable variable Hardest situations are experienced by those living in isolated rural areas New „phenomena‟ is the appearance of those suffering within cities Fare*1300 Food, Hunger and Poverty 2013 “I have put my children first and ensured that they eat twice a day, but I – only once.” HIV/AIDS only enhances the suffering Too many people are depending on agriculture for livelihoods, and the land‟s carrying capacity cannot withstand the people‟s demand Managing the food security problem requires a great deal of cooperation, which is considered as a heavy demand and would require a great deal of energy to coordinate Optimistic Approach “Millions Fed” Solutions to malnutrition and poverty have been made possible by scientists, farmers, and every day people who contribute to change to end hunger and reduce poverty 1940s: significance of depletion of wheat by a fungus 60-100% crop loss; Pakistan 50-80% lost, Scientists worked towards a solution, developed new strains of wheat with cross- pollination The outcome: protection from rust fungi, 60-120 million homes were better suited to feed themselves Burkina – drought brought land to devastation, 25% of population migrated, 50% of food aid decreased; innovating simple practices helped improve quality of soil, protection from wind and even-spread of rainwater Basic Framework: Approaching the Hunger Problem Complex Interactions BTWN: Supply: production, environmental sustainability concerns and priorities Demand: population growth/change, incomes of population (purchasing power) What to Consider in this Course: Nature of the Problem Causal Factors Policy Responses Chapters 1 & 2 The 4 P‟s of analyzing prospects of food supply and demand: Population: - More people to feed = more demand for food Prosperity: - Greater economic prosperity = more consumer purchasing power for an adequate diet, access to healthcare, clean water supply, and education - Income levels reflect the purchasing power a person has to demand more food and a wider variety (ex/ 7 billion affluent Fare*1300 Food, Hunger and Poverty 2013 people demand significantly more agricultural production than do 7 billion relatively poor) Pollution: - Pollution, environmental quality and availability of land/water resources are critical in assessing agricultural production and potential Productivity: - The amount of food crops able to grow on a given area of agricultural may increase if farmers apply more fertilizer, use more labour, or use new technologies Famine Defo: Localized, temporary and severe food shortages. Almost always the result of a natural disaster followed by a poor policy response, and may or may not begin from already poverty-ridden areas, but undoubtedly leads towards it. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840‟s:  Spurred a wave of Irish emigration to the US, transforming US culture – especially of St. Patrick‟s Day and as emblematic of Br
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