FARE 2700 Lecture 1: fare lectures

44 Pages
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Department
Food Agricultural and Resource Economics
Course Code
FARE 2700
Professor
Bethany Liptka

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Description
FARE 2700 2017/09/11 Unit 1 (sept 11) Visions of the future The Self- extinction premises Carrying capacity: - the number of people, other living organisms or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation Environmental challenges 1. Climate change 2. Land scarcity While there may be land abundance on aggregate individual farmers find it hard to expand Not all the land is good for farming and not having the labor and tech to help them. Holden, Deininger and Ghebru ( 2010); conflict over controlling territory () is the largest category of causes of inter-state and intra-conflicts globally. 3. Land Degradation Damaging the soil to an point that it CANNOT be fixed. 4. Water Scarcity An additional 500 million are approaching scarcity 1.6 billion face economic water shortage live in areas that lack necessary infrastructure to extract, treat and safely deliver water. Canadians First nations suffer in finding safe water Water scarcity can happen in more developed regions not just underdeveloped countries The Debate Thomas Robert Malthus (Pessimism) An Essay on the principle of population, 1798 the power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race ( chapter 7, pg. 44) FARE 2700 2017/09/11 Ester Boserup (Optimism) The conditions of agricultural growth: the economics of agrarian change under population pressure, 1965 Necessity is the mother of invention The Evidence Innovation Green revolution (1930s-1960s) - High yielding varieties, hybrid seeds, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, irrigation infrastructure modernization of farm management techniques - Norman Borlaug father of green revolution Global food insecurity According to the FAO - 795 million undernourished globally, 10.9% of the worlds population 12.9% in developing regions FARE 2700 2017/09/11 Global food insecurity Food waste Global food losses and food waste extent, causes and prevention, FAO 2011 Roughly 1/3 of food produced for human consumption is wasted globally: 1.3 billon tonnes per year FARE 2700 2017/09/11 Demographic transition Working-age population in the poorest countries about to see a substantial increase Political Instability and food security Deaton and lipka, 2015. political instability and food security journal of food security, 3(1):29-33 - Found that the most food insecure countries globally also had high levels of political instability Feedback loops Positive: self-reinforcing
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