Advances in food processing technology cannot be made without the knowledge of heat flow, radiation, mechanics, and fluid behaviour. Food science: an applied science where principles from the basic sciences are applied to study foods and to solve problems related to food. Food engineers need to know physics responsible for designing and modifying food processing equipment. Research and development studying physical properties of food to understand foods better, develop new products, or improve existing ones. Heat/energy transfer is important in food science b/c major processing operations are based on heat transfer principles. Heat processing: canning, pasteurization, and evaporation involve adding heat energy to food to increase the temperature of food. Same thing with refrigeration and freezing heat is removed from food to decrease the temp. of the food. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be converted into other forms of energy = first law of thermodynamics.