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Lecture 10

FRHD 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Endodermis, Sociobiology, Robert Munsch

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020
Shayna Sparling

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23, posting pictures in men bathrooms, "bathroom mans", 2013 passing bill to gender identity act
Why do gender roles differ?
social behaviour results from biological differences
Testosterone and estrogen
ex-pink, ponies, dresses - girl boys- blue, cars ,sports
Learning Theories
we learn behaviours from our interactions with the environment
Reinforcement- rewards and punishments
different rewards/punishments for boys/girls
modelling and imitation
following what "norms" are set by people around us
ex- family
Kohlberg 1966
Cognitive theory of gender identity
Gender Labelling (2-3)
understand that they are either a boy or girl
Gender Stability (preschool)
understand gender is stable
eg- boy becomes a man
believe that if you can change something, your sex has changed
ex- girl who cuts her hair looks like a boy
Gender Consistency (4-7
Understand sex biology
remain the same person is engaging in cross gender activates
when understand labels stability and consistency they have mastered gender constancy
Gender Schema Theory
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Bern 1981 Martin and Halverson 1983
form basic gender identity, develop gender schemas
organized set of gender related to beliefs that influence behaviour
determine with individuals
attend to-
interpret about the world
remember about experiences
female- what does it mean to be a women, look at people around you, parents, media
cross type- with the opposite gender
endodermis- both gender into core gender identity
help explain gender stereotypes
really like to enforce our schemas/stereotypes
teach children alternative schemata -Bern
helping kids develop individual schema - each person is a special case
provide sexism schema- promotes moral outrage when sexism shown- positive gender
eg- toy store- not girls/ boys sections
4 ways parents socialize their children
Physical and verbal interactions
degree that children are handled more gently (gisl) roughly (boys)
Stereotypical gender-identified objects
trucks/cars- boys dolls-girls
Different verbal descriptions of the same behaviour
eg- gentle, aggressive, non-competitive
Sterotypical gender-identified activities
what do fathers do?
spend more time with sons
are playmates with children (rough/ tumble play)
higher standards for sons than daughters
stress feeling and emotions with daughters more than sons
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